How to format your references using the Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson, M. (2002). Spintronics: spin accumulation in mesoscopic systems. Nature, 416(6883), 809–10; discussion 810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacoby, C. A., & Frazer, T. K. (2009). Eutrophication: time to adjust expectations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5928), 723–4; author reply 724-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beaber, J. W., Hochhut, B., & Waldor, M. K. (2004). SOS response promotes horizontal dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. Nature, 427(6969), 72–74.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Vecchi, C., Montosi, G., Zhang, K., Lamberti, I., Duncan, S. A., Kaufman, R. J., & Pietrangelo, A. (2009). ER stress controls iron metabolism through induction of hepcidin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5942), 877–880.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laplante, P. A., & Ovaska, S. J. (2011). Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ince, A. N., & Bragg, A. (Eds.). (2007). Recent Advances in Modeling and Simulation Tools for Communication Networks and Services. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ru’yuan, L., Zhi’an, W., Li’yan, & Xuhui, W. (2011). Internet-Based Electronic Toll Collection System Using WiFi Technology. In M. Dai (Ed.), Innovative Computing and Information: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011. Proceedings, Part II (pp. 22–25). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, July 11). New Crew Arrives At The International Space Station. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). VA Student Financial Aid: Actions Needed to Reduce Overlap in Approval Activities (No. GAO-07-775T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Santella Steen, S. (2017). The Potential of Television Programming as a Resource to Facilitate Academic Progress for Students who have a Specific Learning Disability in Reading (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, October 1). A Ban on Coed Contact Sports. New York Times, p. B19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnson 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Jacoby and Frazer 2009; Johnson 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacoby and Frazer 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Vecchi et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments
AbbreviationPaleobiodivers. Paleoenviron.
ISSN (print)1867-1594
ISSN (online)1867-1608
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Global and Planetary Change

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