How to format your references using the Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Owens, B. (2013). Mining: Extreme prospects. Nature, 495(7440), S4-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeomans, D. K., & Veverka, J. (2004). Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004). Nature, 432(7013), 31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia, Y., Sanchez, J. A., & Wangh, L. J. (2014). Kinetic hairpin oligonucleotide blockers for selective amplification of rare mutations. Scientific reports, 4, 5921.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hsieh, C.-H., Glaser, S. M., Lucas, A. J., & Sugihara, G. (2005). Distinguishing random environmental fluctuations from ecological catastrophes for the North Pacific Ocean. Nature, 435(7040), 336–340.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schulze, V. (2005). Modern Mechanical Surface Treatment. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Neri, E. (2008). Produrre ed elaborare immagini diagnostiche. (P. Marcheschi & D. Caramella, Eds.). Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nuutila, E., Törmä, S., Kinnunen, P., & Malmi, L. (2008). Learning Programming with the PBL Method — Experiences on PBL Cases and Tutoring. In J. Bennedsen, M. E. Caspersen, & M. Kölling (Eds.), Reflections on the Teaching of Programming: Methods and Implementations (pp. 47–67). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, February 11). Massive Neutrinos Help Correct the Standard Model of Cosmology. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Review of Certain Aspects of the Head Start Program Operated by the Community Education Extension of Mary Holmes College, Jackson, Mississippi (No. B-157356). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Russo, C. A. (2014). The potential harms of breast cancer screening: estimating the unnecessary surgical diagnosis of benign breast lesions and its impact on quality and cost among insured women younger than 65 years old (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fiske, I. H. (1907, April 13). ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE. New York Times, p. SATURDAY REVIEW OF BOOKSBR233.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Owens 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Owens 2013; Yeomans and Veverka 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yeomans and Veverka 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Hsieh et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments
AbbreviationPaleobiodivers. Paleoenviron.
ISSN (print)1867-1594
ISSN (online)1867-1608
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Global and Planetary Change

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