How to format your references using the Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ehrlich, P. R. (2010). Retrospective. Stephen Schneider (1945-2010). Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5993), 776.
A journal article with 2 authors
West, J. D., & Bergstrom, C. T. (2011). Psychology. Can ignorance promote democracy? Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6062), 1503–1504.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, Y. K., Lee, H., & Park, J. Y. (2014). Tandem-structured, hot electron based photovoltaic cell with double Schottky barriers. Scientific reports, 4, 4580.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rault, J. E., Menteş, T. O., Locatelli, A., & Barrett, N. (2014). Reversible switching of in-plane polarized ferroelectric domains in BaTiO3(001) with very low energy electrons. Scientific reports, 4, 6792.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Damrosch, D. (2017). How to Read World Literature. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dent, D. (Ed.). (2014). Soil as World Heritage. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Korres, D. S. (2013). Fractures of the Axis. In D. S. Korres (Ed.), The Axis Vertebra (pp. 41–43). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, August 2). Why Have Loads Of Corpse Flowers Been Releasing Their Stink Recently? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Federal Research: Superconducting Super Collider’s Total Estimated Cost Will Exceed $11 Billion (No. T-RCED-93-57). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freedman, R. (2014). Assessing the functional recovery and connectivity potential of restored estuaries in southern California using juvenile predator fish movements (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M. (2017, August 14). ‘Gettin’ the Band Back Together’ Opens in 2018. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ehrlich 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ehrlich 2010; West and Bergstrom 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (West and Bergstrom 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Rault et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments
AbbreviationPaleobiodivers. Paleoenviron.
ISSN (print)1867-1594
ISSN (online)1867-1608
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Global and Planetary Change

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