How to format your references using the Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van der Oost, J. (2013). Molecular biology. New tool for genome surgery. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6121), 768–770.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greene, C. H., & Pershing, A. J. (2007). Oceans. Climate drives sea change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5815), 1084–1085.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu, Z.-X., Lan, H., & Ji, W. (2014). Role of the dispersion force in modeling the interfacial properties of molecule-metal interfaces: adsorption of thiophene on copper surfaces. Scientific reports, 4, 5036.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Westphal, V., Rizzoli, S. O., Lauterbach, M. A., Kamin, D., Jahn, R., & Hell, S. W. (2008). Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5873), 246–249.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rittereiser, C. M., & Kochard, L. E. (2010). Top Hedge Fund Investors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bokalič, M. (2015). Spatially Resolved Characterization in Thin-Film Photovoltaics. (M. Topič, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Avramidis, I., Athanatopoulou, A., Morfidis, K., Sextos, A., & Giaralis, A. (2016). EC8-Compliant Seismic Analysis and Design Examples. In A. Athanatopoulou, K. Morfidis, A. Sextos, & A. Giaralis (Eds.), Eurocode-Compliant Seismic Analysis and Design of R/C Buildings: Concepts, Commentary and Worked Examples with Flowcharts (pp. 247–451). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, November 29). Exoplanet’s Year Measured With Incredible Precision Of Just 18 Seconds. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). General Aviation: Observations Related to Liability Insurance Requirements and Coverage for Aircraft Owners (No. GAO-15-740). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, T. (2013). Talking to Strangers: Chinese Youth and Social Media (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2016, December 16). A Vanished Woman’s Strange Return. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van der Oost 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Greene and Pershing 2007; van der Oost 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Greene and Pershing 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Westphal et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments
AbbreviationPaleobiodivers. Paleoenviron.
ISSN (print)1867-1594
ISSN (online)1867-1608
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles