How to format your references using the Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G. (2003). US societies unite in plea for boost to research budgets. Nature, 421(6919), 100.
A journal article with 2 authors
Orszag, J. M., & Orszag, P. R. (2005). Economics. Individual accounts: lessons from international experience. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5732), 250–251.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shim, S. H., Duffy, T. S., & Shen, G. (2001). Stability and structure of MgSiO3 perovskite to 2300-kilometer depth in Earth’s mantle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5539), 2437–2440.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hu, J., Shibata, Y., Voss, C., Shemesh, T., Li, Z., Coughlin, M., et al. (2008). Membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum induce high-curvature tubules. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5867), 1247–1250.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rimai, D. S. (2016). Patent Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sykes, D., Tocci, G. C., & Cavanaugh, W. J. (Eds.). (2013). Sound & Vibration 2.0: Design Guidelines for Health Care Facilities. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Thibodeau, K. (2016). Research Issues in Archival Provenance. In V. L. Lemieux (Ed.), Building Trust in Information: Perspectives on the Frontiers of Provenance (pp. 69–78). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, March 28). Musician Composes Pi Song On Piano. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Charter Schools: Federal Funding Available but Barriers Exist (No. HEHS-98-84). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckingham, T. (2012). Every teacher an English teacher? Literacy strategy teaching and research in the content area of science education (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, February 14). Again: It’s Hillary Rodham Clinton. Got That? New York Times, p. 133.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel 2003; Orszag and Orszag 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Orszag and Orszag 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments
AbbreviationPaleobiodivers. Paleoenviron.
ISSN (print)1867-1594
ISSN (online)1867-1608
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Global and Planetary Change

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