How to format your references using the Applied Soft Computing Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Soft Computing Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.M. Bers, Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, Nature. 415 (2002) 198–205.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Kalcheim, H. Rohrer, Neuroscience. Following the same nerve track toward different cell fates, Science. 345 (2014) 32–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.D. Buhr, S.-H. Yoo, J.S. Takahashi, Temperature as a universal resetting cue for mammalian circadian oscillators, Science. 330 (2010) 379–385.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B.A. Campbell, D.B. Campbell, J.F. Chandler, A.A. Hine, M.C. Nolan, P.J. Perillat, Radar imaging of the lunar poles, Nature. 426 (2003) 137–138.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.J. Huber, Data Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
H. Chen, L. Brandt, V. Gregg, R. Traunmüller, S. Dawes, E. Hovy, A. Macintosh, C.A. Larson, eds., Digital Government: E-Government Research, Case Studies, and Implementation, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Wong, N.D. Holliday, I.D. Kerr, Single Molecule or Ensemble Fluorescence Microscopy Investigations of ABC Transporter Oligomerisation and Dynamics, in: A.M. George (Ed.), ABC Transporters - 40 Years On, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 85–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Soft Computing Journal.

Blog post
K. Evans, Seeing Is Not Believing: Our Brains Trust Its Own Generated Images More Than Real Ones, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Assistance System Should Be Changed To Permit Greater Involvement by State Legislatures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.G. Pezzolesi, Novel Mechanisms of PTEN Dysfunction in PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Mandel, Brave New World, New York Times. (2016) BR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Soft Computing Journal
AbbreviationAppl. Soft Comput.
ISSN (print)1568-4946

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