How to format your references using the Applied Soft Computing Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Soft Computing Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Matyjaszewski, Chemistry. Architecturally complex polymers with controlled heterogeneity, Science. 333 (2011) 1104–1105.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.E. Hoekstra, T. Price, Evolution. Parallel evolution is in the genes, Science. 303 (2004) 1779–1781.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.X. Mori, M.G. Erickson, D.T. Yue, Functional stoichiometry and local enrichment of calmodulin interacting with Ca2+ channels, Science. 304 (2004) 432–435.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F.G. Liu, M.M. Miyamoto, N.P. Freire, P.Q. Ong, M.R. Tennant, T.S. Young, K.F. Gugel, Molecular and morphological supertrees for eutherian (placental) mammals, Science. 291 (2001) 1786–1789.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Williams, V. Turton, Trading Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
M. Ochi, K. Shino, K. Yasuda, M. Kurosaka, eds., ACL Injury and Its Treatment, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Crespi Reghizzi, L. Breveglieri, A. Morzenti, Pushdown Automata and Parsing, in: L. Breveglieri, A. Morzenti (Eds.), Formal Languages and Compilation, Springer, London, 2013: pp. 141–291.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Soft Computing Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Camera Develops Pictures With Algorithms, Not Lenses, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Protest Against Rejection of Bid, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.E. Jackson, Where are the parents: The parent’s perspective of parental involvement in education, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, Streisand’s ‘Encore’ Tops Album Chart, New York Times. (2016) C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Soft Computing Journal
AbbreviationAppl. Soft Comput.
ISSN (print)1568-4946

Other styles