How to format your references using the Applied Soft Computing Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Soft Computing Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Maxmen, Translational research: The American way, Nature. 478 (2011) S16-8.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Hyman, K. Simons, A pipeline for Europe, Nature. 449 (2007) 256.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Babaev, A. Sudbø, N.W. Ashcroft, A superconductor to superfluid phase transition in liquid metallic hydrogen, Nature. 431 (2004) 666–668.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.J. Minzenberg, A.J. Watrous, J.H. Yoon, S. Ursu, C.S. Carter, Modafinil shifts human locus coeruleus to low-tonic, high-phasic activity during functional MRI, Science. 322 (2008) 1700–1702.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Prutchi, S.R. Prutchi, Exploring Quantum Physics Through Hands-On Projects, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
V.E. Balas, J. Fodor, A.R. Várkonyi-Kóczy, eds., New Concepts and Applications in Soft Computing, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Cadorin, M.-A. Knus, M. Rost, On the dimension and other numerical invariants of algebras and vector products, in: R. Tandon (Ed.), Algebra and Number Theory: Proceedings of the Silver Jubilee Conference University of Hyderabad, Hindustan Book Agency, Gurgaon, 2005: pp. 34–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Soft Computing Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, 25 Strangest Things Found on an X-Ray, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 21st Century Challenges: Reexamining the Base of the Federal Government, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.M. Sexton, Progress Toward Analytic Predictions of Supersonic Hydrocarbon-Air Combustion: Computation of Ignition Times and Supersonic Mixing Layers, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, HBO Renews 3 Series, New York Times. (2016) C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Soft Computing Journal
AbbreviationAppl. Soft Comput.
ISSN (print)1568-4946

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