How to format your references using the Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walker J. Frederick Sanger (1918-2013). Nature. 2014 Jan 2;505(7481):27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zegerman P, Diffley JFX. Phosphorylation of Sld2 and Sld3 by cyclin-dependent kinases promotes DNA replication in budding yeast. Nature. 2007 Jan 18;445(7125):281–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim HK, Hanson GW, Geller DA. Chemistry. Are gold clusters in RF fields hot or not? Science. 2013 Apr 26;340(6131):441–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Salamat A, Deifallah M, Cabrera RQ, Corà F, McMillan PF. Identification of new pillared-layered carbon nitride materials at high pressure. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirchner T. Merger Arbitrage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Richter KF. Landmarks: GIScience for Intelligent Services. Winter S, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XV, 223 p. 47 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Morrison AB, Jha AP. Mindfulness, Attention, and Working Memory. In: Ostafin BD, Robinson MD, Meier BP, editors. Handbook of Mindfulness and Self-Regulation. New York, NY: Springer; 2015. p. 33–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. There Is Still A Glimmer of Hope for Jade Rabbit. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The First Step Toward Reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Jan. Report No.: 147980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tovar B. A drug and alcohol education and prevention program for Hispanic families: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. In Cleveland’s Revival, They Were Champions First. New York Times. 2016 Oct 31;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
ISSN (print)0257-4985

Other styles