How to format your references using the Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cisne JL. How science survived: medieval manuscripts’ “demography” and classic texts’ extinction. Science. 2005 Feb 25;307(5713):1305–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rignot E, Jacobs SS. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding lines. Science. 2002 Jun 14;296(5575):2020–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang Y, Ran S, Yang G. Single molecular investigation of DNA looping and aggregation by restriction endonuclease BspMI. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 31;4:5897.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Craig CM, Delay D, Grealy MA, Lee DN. Guiding the swing in golf putting. Nature. 2000 May 18;405(6784):295–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adamowicz Z, Zbierski P. Logic of Mathematics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1997.
An edited book
Winkler F, editor. Algebraic Informatics: 4th International Conference, CAI 2011, Linz, Austria, June 21-24, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. X, 261 p. 23 illus., 1 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 6742).
A chapter in an edited book
Majumder M, Barman RN. Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Short-Term Rainfall Forecasting. In: Majumder M, Barman RN, editors. Application of Nature Based Algorithm in Natural Resource Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 43–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Adorable New Species Of Peacock Spider Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Carrier Safety: Preliminary Information on the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Efforts to Identify and Follow Up with High-risk Carriers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Jul. Report No.: GAO-07-1074T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holby N. School Counselors and Their Experiences Implementing Comprehensive Programs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. I Say Yip-Yip, You Say Ruff-Ruff: Small Dogs Lobby for Own Dog Run. New York Times. 2002 Jul 7;145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
ISSN (print)0257-4985

Other styles