How to format your references using the Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Czeisler CA. Perspective: casting light on sleep deficiency. Nature. 2013 May 23;497(7450):S13.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Elbert T, Heim S. A light and a dark side. Nature. 2001 May 10;411(6834):139.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Hsin J-P, Sheth A, Manley JL. RNAP II CTD phosphorylated on threonine-4 is required for histone mRNA 3’ end processing. Science. 2011 Nov 4;334(6056):683–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Bunch JS, van der Zande AM, Verbridge SS, Frank IW, Tanenbaum DM, Parpia JM, et al. Electromechanical resonators from graphene sheets. Science. 2007 Jan 26;315(5811):490–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Good PI. A Manager’s Guide to the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1.
Wismath S, Wolff A, editors. Graph Drawing: 21st International Symposium, GD 2013, Bordeaux, France, September 23-25, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013. XXII, 540 p. 223 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 8242).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Horsmanheimo S, Maskey N, Kokkoniemi-Tarkkanen H, Tuomimäki L, Savolainen P. Learning Based Proactive Handovers in Heterogeneous Networks. In: Pesch D, Timm-Giel A, Calvo RA, Wenning B-L, Pentikousis K, editors. Mobile Networks and Management: 5th International Conference, MONAMI 2013, Cork, Ireland, September 23-25, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013. p. 57–68. (Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. 3DTouch Works In 3 Dimensions & Could Replace The Computer Mouse [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/3dtouch-works-3-dimensions-could-replace-computer-mouse/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Air Taxis--The Most Accident-Prone Airlines--Need Better Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Jan. Report No.: RCED-92-60.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
De la Rosa-Carrillo EL. On the language of Internet Memes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Shpigel B. After 5 Months of Work, U.S. Makes (and Earns) a Vital Point. New York Times. 2017 Jun 12;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
ISSN (print)0257-4985
Scope

Other styles