How to format your references using the Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Miller C. ClC chloride channels viewed through a transporter lens. Nature. 2006 Mar 23;440(7083):484–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kamena F, Spang A. Tip20p prohibits back-fusion of COPII vesicles with the endoplasmic reticulum. Science. 2004 Apr 9;304(5668):286–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Yoshizawa M, Tamura M, Fujita M. Diels-alder in aqueous molecular hosts: unusual regioselectivity and efficient catalysis. Science. 2006 Apr 14;312(5771):251–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Pfeifer M, Boncristiano S, Bondolfi L, Stalder A, Deller T, Staufenbiel M, et al. Cerebral hemorrhage after passive anti-Abeta immunotherapy. Science. 2002 Nov 15;298(5597):1379.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Held T. In-situ-Verfahren zur Boden- und Grundwassersanierung. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Tiwari S. AdvancED Flex 3. Herrington J, Elrom E, Mostafa J, editors. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2008. 640 p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Henzell RG, Jordan DR. Grain Sorghum. In: Carena MJ, editor. Cereals. New York, NY: Springer US; 2009. p. 183–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Zika Virus To Be Studied As A Treatment For Brain Tumors [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/zika-virus-to-be-studied-as-a-treatment-for-brain-tumors/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Freight Railroads: Preliminary Observations on Rates, Competition, and Capacity Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Jun. Report No.: GAO-06-898T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wulfsberg JC. Singing Turkish, performing Turkishness: Message and audience in the song competition of the International Turkish Olympiad [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow K. Neighbors Defend Park From a Soccer Invasion. New York Times. 2002 Oct 13;148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
ISSN (print)0257-4985
Scope

Other styles