How to format your references using the Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kulacki G. US and China need contact, not cold war. Nature. 2011 Jun 22;474(7352):444–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Wilkinson K, Hershko A. Irwin Allan Rose (1926-2015). Nature. 2015 Jul 30;523(7562):532.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ioannou CC, Guttal V, Couzin ID. Predatory fish select for coordinated collective motion in virtual prey. Science. 2012 Sep 7;337(6099):1212–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Caudy AA, Ketting RF, Hammond SM, Denli AM, Bathoorn AMP, Tops BBJ, et al. A micrococcal nuclease homologue in RNAi effector complexes. Nature. 2003 Sep 25;425(6956):411–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Henden J. Beating Combat Stress. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Zinicovscaia I, Cepoi L, editors. Cyanobacteria for Bioremediation of Wastewaters. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. IX, 124 p. 42 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
VanPool CS, VanPool TL. Breath and Being: Contextualizing Object Persons at Paquimé, Chihuahua, Mexico. In: Rountree K, Morris C, Peatfield AAD, editors. Archaeology of Spiritualities. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 87–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. The UK Wants To Blacklist Homeopathy [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/england-wales-could-blacklist-homeopathy/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federal Air Marshal Service: Actions Taken to Fulfill Core Mission and Address Workforce Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Jul. Report No.: GAO-09-903T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Herron M. Prescripton labels: Do you know what medication you are taking? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg B. The Pulitzer at 100. New York Times. 2017 Jul 20;C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
ISSN (print)0257-4985
Scope

Other styles