How to format your references using the Frontiers in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. (2001). Imported stem cells deepen Germany’s ethical divide. Nature 412, 4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gavrilets, S., and Losos, J. B. (2009). Adaptive radiation: contrasting theory with data. Science 323, 732–737.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haskell, J. P., Ritchie, M. E., and Olff, H. (2002). Fractal geometry predicts varying body size scaling relationships for mammal and bird home ranges. Nature 418, 527–530.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li, S., Zhang, L., Wang, H., Chen, Z., Hu, J., Xu, K., et al. (2014). Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth with hierarchical nanopores as efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts. Sci. Rep. 4, 3978.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ganda, K. M. (2013). Dentist’s Guide to Medical Conditions, Medications, and Complications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gilsanz, V. (2012). Hand Bone Age: A Digital Atlas of Skeletal Maturity. , ed. O. Ratib Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mochizuki, Y., and Imiya, A. (2012). “Pyramid Transform and Scale-Space Analysis in Image Analysis,” in Outdoor and Large-Scale Real-World Scene Analysis: 15th International Workshop on Theoretical Foundations of Computer Vision, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, June 26 - July 1, 2011. Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. F. Dellaert, J.-M. Frahm, M. Pollefeys, L. Leal-Taixé, and B. Rosenhahn (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 78–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). Make Love, Not War: Fighting Badgers Age Faster. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Federal Aviation Administration: Reauthorization Provides Opportunities to Address Key Agency Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Forlano, L. (2008). When code meets place: Collaboration and innovation at WiFi hotspots.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2006). 13 Hospitals to Remove Trans Fats From Meals. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier, 2001; Gavrilets and Losos, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gavrilets and Losos, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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