How to format your references using the Frontiers in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stocking, M. A. (2003). Tropical soils and food security: the next 50 years. Science 302, 1356–1359.
A journal article with 2 authors
Efferson, C., and Vogt, S. (2013). Viewing men’s faces does not lead to accurate predictions of trustworthiness. Sci. Rep. 3, 1047.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jordan, S. P., Lee, K. S. M., and Preskill, J. (2012). Quantum algorithms for quantum field theories. Science 336, 1130–1133.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou, Z., Licklider, L. J., Gygi, S. P., and Reed, R. (2002). Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the human spliceosome. Nature 419, 182–185.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coles, A., and Hawkins, D. G. (2011). MIDAS Technical Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Peterson, G., and Shenoi, S. eds. (2012). Advances in Digital Forensics VIII: 8th IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, Pretoria, South Africa, January 3-5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stone, L. (2008). “Educationalization in a USA Present: A Historicist Rendering,” in Educational Research: the Educationalization of Social Problems, eds. P. Smeyers and M. Depaepe (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Newly Released Footage Shows A Wild Panda Masturbating. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak Needs to Improve Its Accountability for Taxpayer Relief Act Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gravano, A. (2009). Turn-taking and affirmative cue words in task-oriented dialogue.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B. (2016). Apollo Global Settles Securities Case as the S.E.C. Imposes a $53 Million Fine. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stocking, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Stocking, 2003; Efferson and Vogt, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Efferson and Vogt, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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