How to format your references using the Frontiers in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, R. H. (2003). Evolution. Wingless insects and plucked chickens. Science 299, 1854–1855.
A journal article with 2 authors
Melville, W. K., and Matusov, P. (2002). Distribution of breaking waves at the ocean surface. Nature 417, 58–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, Y., Nakano, M., and Ikeda, T. (2003). Photomechanics: directed bending of a polymer film by light. Nature 425, 145.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Qiu, Y.-Q., Zhou, J., Kang, X.-S., Ding, L.-M., Yu, W., Tan, F.-L., et al. (2014). Effect of BZG-4000, a novel multi-targeted kinase inhibitor with potent anticancer activity, on a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model. Sci. Rep. 4, 4324.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheremisinoff, N. P. (2014). Dust Explosion and Fire Prevention Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barnett, G. H. ed. (2007). High-Grade Gliomas: Diagnosis and Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Wajnberg, E. (2010). “Genetics of the Behavioral Ecology of Egg Parasitoids,” in Egg Parasitoids in Agroecosystems with Emphasis on Trichogramma, eds. F. L. Consoli, J. R. P. Parra, and R. A. Zucchi (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 149–165.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). Subway’s “Chicken” Contains Just 50 Percent Chicken DNA, Says Investigation. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). B-2 Bomber: Early Radar Signature Tests. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez Gamez, L. I. (2012). New perspectives on the spatial analysis of urban employment distribution and commuting patterns: The cases of Hermosillo and Ciudad Obregon, Mexico.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J. (2017). Royal Robbins, Trailblazer and Conscience of Rock Climbers, Dies at 82. New York Times, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thomas, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Melville and Matusov, 2002; Thomas, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Melville and Matusov, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Qiu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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