How to format your references using the Frontiers in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kandel, E. R. (2001). The molecular biology of memory storage: a dialogue between genes and synapses. Science 294, 1030–1038.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parnell, R. J., and Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (2001). Animal behaviour. An unusual social display by gorillas. Nature 412, 294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mei, T.-S., Patel, H. H., and Sigman, M. S. (2014). Enantioselective construction of remote quaternary stereocentres. Nature 508, 340–344.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hoekstra, H. E., Hirschmann, R. J., Bundey, R. A., Insel, P. A., and Crossland, J. P. (2006). A single amino acid mutation contributes to adaptive beach mouse color pattern. Science 313, 101–104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martindale, W. (2014). Global Food Security and Supply. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Adler, S. S. (2014). PNF in Practice: An Illustrated Guide. Fourth fully revised edition. , eds. D. Beckers and M. Buck Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
van Dijk, J. (2011). “Transnational Organized Crime, Civil Society and Victim Empowerment,” in The New Faces of Victimhood: Globalization, Transnational Crimes and Victim Rights Studies in Global Justice., eds. R. Letschert and J. van Dijk (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 99–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Current Extinction Rate 10 Times Worse Than Previously Thought. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995). Aviation Security: FAA Can Help Ensure That Airports’ Access Control Systems Are Cost-Effective. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pulice, S. W. (2013). The colonized child: Love, community, and wholeness as necessary elements of education.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008). Supreme Court Rebuffs a Challenge to New York’s Way of Picking Its Judges. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kandel, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Kandel, 2001; Parnell and Buchanan-Smith, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parnell and Buchanan-Smith, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hoekstra et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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