How to format your references using the Frontiers in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kielpinski, D. (2015). Quantum physics: Quantum sound waves stick together. Nature 527, 45–46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xie, J., and Black, D. L. (2001). A CaMK IV responsive RNA element mediates depolarization-induced alternative splicing of ion channels. Nature 410, 936–939.
A journal article with 3 authors
Margulies, L., Winther, G., and Poulsen, H. F. (2001). In situ measurement of grain rotation during deformation of polycrystals. Science 291, 2392–2394.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gregson, S., Garnett, G. P., Nyamukapa, C. A., Hallett, T. B., Lewis, J. J. C., Mason, P. R., et al. (2006). HIV decline associated with behavior change in eastern Zimbabwe. Science 311, 664–666.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silverstein, D., Samuel, P., and Decarlo, N. (2008). The Innovator’s Toolkit. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Volpi, P. ed. (2016). Arthroscopy and Sport Injuries: Applications in High-level Athletes. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao, S., Han, J., Lv, J., Jiang, X., Hu, X., Zhang, S., et al. (2016). “A Multi-stage Sparse Coding Framework to Explore the Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure,” in Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2016: 19th International Conference, Athens, Greece, October 17-21, 2016, Proceedings, Part I Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. S. Ourselin, L. Joskowicz, M. R. Sabuncu, G. Unal, and W. Wells (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 28–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). How Female Parasitoid Wasps Pick Their Caterpillar Victims. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Los Angeles Red Line: Financing Decisions Could Affect This and Other Los Angeles County Rail Capital Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grasis, J. A. (2008). Controlling T lymphocyte activation with a molecular rheostat.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2015). The Rise of Modigliani’s Profile, and the Asking Prices for His Works. New York Times, C36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kielpinski, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kielpinski, 2015; Xie and Black, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xie and Black, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Gregson et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles