How to format your references using the Erkenntnis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Erkenntnis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dajani, R. (2011). The Arab Spring offers hope but no quick fix. Nature, 477(7362), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Friedman, J. R., & Nunnari, J. (2014). Mitochondrial form and function. Nature, 505(7483), 335–343.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fowler, A. G., Devitt, S. J., & Jones, C. (2013). Surface code implementation of block code state distillation. Scientific reports, 3, 1939.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, C., Tong, W., Liu, B., Zhang, A., & Li, F. (2014). The -1082A>G polymorphism in promoter region of interleukin-10 and risk of digestive cancer: a meta-analysis. Scientific reports, 4, 5335.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berk, J. (2010). Cost Reduction and Optimization for Manufacturing and Industrial Companies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brüggemann, R. (2011). Ranking and Prioritization for Multi-indicator Systems: Introduction to Partial Order Applications. (G. P. Patil, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Capitelli, M., Colonna, G., & D’Angola, A. (2012). Molecular Partition Function: Vibrational, Rotational and Electronic Contributions. In G. Colonna & A. D’Angola (Eds.), Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Thermodynamics (pp. 79–99). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Erkenntnis.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, October 15). Activity Patterns Of The Brain Are As Unique As Fingerprints. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Aviation Security: Secure Flight Development and Testing Under Way, but Risks Should Be Managed as System Is Further Developed (No. GAO-05-356). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abedin, G. (2010). Exploring the potential of art-based education for adolescents with learning disabilities: A case study of engagement in learning through the arts (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2015, May 8). Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times, p. C33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dajani 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Dajani 2011; Friedman and Nunnari 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Friedman and Nunnari 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleErkenntnis
ISSN (print)0165-0106
ISSN (online)1572-8420

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