How to format your references using the Erkenntnis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Erkenntnis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parisi, G. (2005). Brownian motion. Nature, 433(7023), 221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blázquez, M. A., & Weigel, D. (2000). Integration of floral inductive signals in Arabidopsis. Nature, 404(6780), 889–892.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang, G., Kennedy, M. J., & Christie-Blick, N. (2003). Stable isotopic evidence for methane seeps in Neoproterozoic postglacial cap carbonates. Nature, 426(6968), 822–826.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kvist, A., Lindström A, Green, M., Piersma, T., & Visser, G. H. (2001). Carrying large fuel loads during sustained bird flight is cheaper than expected. Nature, 413(6857), 730–732.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coulson, J. (2014). Sustainable Use of Wood in Construction. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nicassio, P. M. (Ed.). (2016). Psychosocial Factors in Arthritis: Perspectives on Adjustment and Management (1st ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sun, X., & Law, E. L.-C. (2010). Towards a Structural Model for Intention to Play a Digital Educational Game. In Z. Pan, A. D. Cheok, W. Müller, X. Zhang, & K. Wong (Eds.), Transactions on Edutainment IV (pp. 44–55). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Erkenntnis.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, April 13). Australia To Cut Welfare Payments For Anti-Vaxxers. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Delta Teachers Academy (No. RCED-94-213R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ibarra, A. L. (2017). Novice Clinicians and the Experience of Transcendence in Clinical Training and Supervision (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., & McKINLEY, J. C., Jr. (2015, August 14). Connecticut Death Penalty Law Is Unconstitutional, Top State Court Says. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parisi 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Blázquez and Weigel 2000; Parisi 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blázquez and Weigel 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Kvist et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleErkenntnis
ISSN (print)0165-0106
ISSN (online)1572-8420

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