How to format your references using the Erkenntnis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Erkenntnis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moynihan, D. (2013). A central agency is crucial for disaster response. Nature, 495(7439), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Showalter, M. R., & Hamilton, D. P. (2015). Resonant interactions and chaotic rotation of Pluto’s small moons. Nature, 522(7554), 45–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu, Z.-X., Lan, H., & Ji, W. (2014). Role of the dispersion force in modeling the interfacial properties of molecule-metal interfaces: adsorption of thiophene on copper surfaces. Scientific reports, 4, 5036.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Müller, C. M., Pejcic, B., Esteban, L., Delle Piane, C., Raven, M., & Mizaikoff, B. (2014). Infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy: an innovative strategy for analyzing mineral components in energy relevant systems. Scientific reports, 4, 6764.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daïan, J.-F. (2014). Equilibrium and Transfer in Porous Media 2. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
He, J., Liu, X., Krupinski, E. A., & Xu, G. (Eds.). (2012). Health Information Science: First International Conference, HIS 2012, Beijing, China, April 8-10, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7231). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Popescu, E. (2012). Project-Based Learning with eMUSE. In E. Popescu, Q. Li, R. Klamma, H. Leung, & M. Specht (Eds.), Advances in Web-Based Learning - ICWL 2012: 11th International Conference, Sinaia, Romania, September 2-4, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 41–50). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Erkenntnis.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, February 11). End-Permian Extinction Happened Much Quicker Than Previously Thought. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Issues Raised by Proposal to Replace the Airline Ticket Tax (No. RCED-97-23). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cannon, J. R. (2012). Microwave-supported acid hydrolysis for proteomics (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
THEODORE HERMANBONNIE BURKEDANIEL ROTHFRANKLIN L. TOWBERMARK ARONOFFKATHLEEN KELLY(Prof.) HOWARD A. SCARROWSTEPHEN JOEL TRACHTENBERG. (1980, February 3). Letters; America’s Burden in the Afghanistan Crisis Impotence in the Face of Soviet Aggression Let Russian Commerce Have an Ice-Free Port Set for San Juan Hill? The Sounds Of Mandarin Sex and the Monarchy A Single-Issue Party’s Clout Errant Philanthropy. New York Times, p. The Week In ReviewE20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moynihan 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Moynihan 2013; Showalter and Hamilton 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Showalter and Hamilton 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Müller et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleErkenntnis
ISSN (print)0165-0106
ISSN (online)1572-8420

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