How to format your references using the Erkenntnis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Erkenntnis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis, R. J. (2012). Cell biology. A scaffold switch to insulate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6099), 1178–1179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ardejani, M. S., & Orner, B. P. (2013). Materials science. Obey the peptide assembly rules. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6132), 561–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Osborne, I., Lavine, M., & Coontz, R. (2010). Materials for electronics. Looking beyond silicon. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5973), 1595.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
List, M., Schmidt, S., Trojnar, J., Thomas, J., Thomassen, M., Kruse, T. A., et al. (2014). Efficient sample tracking with OpenLabFramework. Scientific reports, 4, 4278.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shafer, G., & Vovk, V. (2005). Probability and Finance: It’s Only a Game! Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jónasson, K. (Ed.). (2012). Applied Parallel and Scientific Computing: 10th International Conference, PARA 2010, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 6-9, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part II (Vol. 7134). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jambor, A., & Babu, S. (2016). Regional Challenges in Ensuring Food Security. In S. Babu (Ed.), Competitiveness of Global Agriculture: Policy Lessons for Food Security (pp. 75–97). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Erkenntnis.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, September 7). Majority Of Humpback Whales Taken Off Endangered Species List. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Aviation Security: Improvement still Needed in Federal Aviation Security Efforts (No. GAO-04-592T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chapman, T. W. (2017). Evaluating the δ13C Value of n-Alkanes as a Recorder of Atmospheric Chemistry (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eldred, S. M., & Eligon, J. (2016, May 11). Doctor Saw Prince a Day Before His Death. New York Times, p. A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davis 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Ardejani and Orner 2013; Davis 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ardejani and Orner 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (List et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleErkenntnis
ISSN (print)0165-0106
ISSN (online)1572-8420

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