How to format your references using the Erkenntnis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Erkenntnis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyman, S. (2014). Mental health: depression needs large human-genetics studies. Nature, 515(7526), 189–191.
A journal article with 2 authors
Charbonneau, P., & Smolarkiewicz, P. K. (2013). Astronomy. Modeling the solar dynamo. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6128), 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oh, K., Jeong, K. S., & Moore, J. S. (2001). Folding-driven synthesis of oligomers. Nature, 414(6866), 889–893.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
DeLuca, T. H., Zackrisson, O., Gundale, M. J., & Nilsson, M.-C. (2008). Ecosystem feedbacks and nitrogen fixation in boreal forests. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5880), 1181.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peca, S. P. (2009). Real Estate Development and Investment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schulz, S. (Ed.). (2005). The Chemistry of Pheromones and Other Semiochemicals II: -/- (Vol. 240). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lorenzoni, A., Orsini, F., & Salvadori, P. A. (2010). Radiofarmaci per tomografia a emissione di positroni. In D. Volterrani, G. Mariani, & P. A. Erba (Eds.), Fondamenti di medicina nucleare: Tecniche e applicazioni (pp. 93–118). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Erkenntnis.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, September 22). Loneliness Could Be In Your DNA. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Highway Safety Improvement Program: Further Efforts Needed to Address Data Limitations and Better Align Funding with States’ Top Safety Priorities (No. GAO-09-35). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tzillah, A. (2009). The emissions of selected air pollutants from biodiesel fuel usage (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hu, W. (2016, August 3). Want to Relax at Park or Pool in New York? Join the Crowd. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hyman 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Charbonneau and Smolarkiewicz 2013; Hyman 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Charbonneau and Smolarkiewicz 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (DeLuca et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleErkenntnis
ISSN (print)0165-0106
ISSN (online)1572-8420

Other styles