How to format your references using the Mathematical Programming citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematical Programming. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guikema, S.D.: Engineering. Infrastructure design issues in disaster-prone regions. Science. 323, 1302–1303 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Brosnan, S.F., De Waal, F.B.M.: Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature. 425, 297–299 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Finnegan, N.J., Schumer, R., Finnegan, S.: A signature of transience in bedrock river incision rates over timescales of 10(4)-10(7) years. Nature. 505, 391–394 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jackson, R.B., Berthrong, S.T., Cook, C.W., Jobbágy, E.G., McCulley, R.L.: Comment on “A reservoir of nitrate beneath desert soils.” Science. 304, 51; author reply 51 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hartfuß, H.-J., Geist, T.: Fusion Plasma Diagnostics with mm-Waves. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2013)
An edited book
Hörner, W., Döbert, H., Kopp, B.V., Mitter, W. eds: The Education Systems of Europe. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Kapoor, S., Dhama, K.: Epidemiology of Influenza Viruses. In: Dhama, K. (ed.) Insight into Influenza Viruses of Animals and Humans. pp. 65–86. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematical Programming.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Secret Water Tunnel Discovered Under Ancient Mayan Temple,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: National Airspace System: Airport-Centric Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2013)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mc Adams, A.N.: School psychologists’ perceptions of procedural fidelity in special education, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cox, R., Lee, L., Maharg-Bravo, F., Hay, G.: Dunkin’ Offers A Bubble Lesson, (2011)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematical Programming
AbbreviationMath. Program.
ISSN (print)0025-5610
ISSN (online)1436-4646
General Mathematics

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