How to format your references using the Mathematical Programming citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematical Programming. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cole-Hamilton, D.J.: Homogeneous catalysis--new approaches to catalyst separation, recovery, and recycling. Science. 299, 1702–1706 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Zebrowitz, L.A., Montepare, J.M.: Psychology. Appearance DOES matter. Science. 308, 1565–1566 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu, L.Q., Cheley, S., Bayley, H.: Capture of a single molecule in a nanocavity. Science. 291, 636–640 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Abramson, J., Smirnova, I., Kasho, V., Verner, G., Kaback, H.R., Iwata, S.: Structure and mechanism of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Science. 301, 610–615 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marston, R.C.: Portfolio Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Raman, C., Goldsmith, M.R., Agunbiade, T.A. eds: Short Views on Insect Genomics and Proteomics: Insect Proteomics, Vol.2. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Hu, W., Zha, L.: Theoretical Aspects of Polymer Crystallization. In: Mitchell, G.R. and Tojeira, A. (eds.) Controlling the Morphology of Polymers: Multiple Scales of Structure and Processing. pp. 101–143. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematical Programming.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Top NASA Climate Scientist Says Temperatures Are Rising At Fastest Rate In 1,000 Years,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: European Aeronautics: Strong Government Presence in Industry Structure and Research and Development Support. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, S.A.: Development of an age-appropriate, facility-specific nutrition screening and assessment tool for the elderly, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J.: Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematical Programming
AbbreviationMath. Program.
ISSN (print)0025-5610
ISSN (online)1436-4646
General Mathematics

Other styles