How to format your references using the Materials Today Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Today Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Ledford, Cheap at any price?, Nature. 447 (2007) 131.
A journal article with 2 authors
F.V. Ramirez Rozzi, J.M. Bermudez De Castro, Surprisingly rapid growth in Neanderthals, Nature. 428 (2004) 936–939.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Wallace, G. Hardy, E. Serabyn, Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars, Nature. 406 (2000) 700–702.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Stoll, A.W. Cowley Jr, P.J. Tonellato, A.S. Greene, M.L. Kaldunski, R.J. Roman, P. Dumas, N.J. Schork, Z. Wang, H.J. Jacob, A genomic-systems biology map for cardiovascular function, Science. 294 (2001) 1723–1726.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.V. Rangarao, R.K. Mallik, Digital Signal Processing, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
L. Lopes, J. Žilinskas, A. Costan, R.G. Cascella, G. Kecskemeti, E. Jeannot, M. Cannataro, L. Ricci, S. Benkner, S. Petit, V. Scarano, J. Gracia, S. Hunold, S.L. Scott, S. Lankes, C. Lengauer, J. Carretero, J. Breitbart, M. Alexander, eds., Euro-Par 2014: Parallel Processing Workshops: Euro-Par 2014 International Workshops, Porto, Portugal, August 25-26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part II, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Lont, D. Milosevic, A. van Roermund, Receiver Front-End Version 1, in: D. Milosevic, A. van Roermund (Eds.), Wake-up Receiver Based Ultra-Low-Power WBAN, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 93–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Today Energy.

Blog post
J. Davis, E-Cigarettes “Around 95% Less Harmful” Than Regular Smoking, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Commercial Aviation: Consumers Could Benefit from Better Information about Airline-Imposed Fees and Refundability of Government-Imposed Taxes and Fees, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Aguilar, Latina single mothers: Perspectives on parenting, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.R. Gordon, U.S. Military Says It Shot Down Drone That Attacked American Allies in Syria, New York Times. (2017) A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Today Energy
ISSN (print)2468-6069

Other styles