How to format your references using the Materials Today Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Today Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Pennisi, Primate evolution. Gene activity clocks brain’s fast evolution, Science. 296 (2002) 233–235.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.J. Borgdorff, D. Choquet, Regulation of AMPA receptor lateral movements, Nature. 417 (2002) 649–653.
A journal article with 3 authors
G.G. Wallace, S.E. Moulton, G.M. Clark, Applied physics. Electrode-cellular interface, Science. 324 (2009) 185–186.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Tong, L. Zhang, A. Kaspar, M.J. Rames, L. Huang, G. Woodnutt, G. Ren, Peptide-conjugation induced conformational changes in human IgG1 observed by optimized negative-staining and individual-particle electron tomography, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1089.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Paret, R. Riesco, RFID and Contactless Smart Card Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, England, 2005.
An edited book
P.J. Williams, A. Jones, C. Buntting, eds., The Future of Technology Education, Springer, Singapore, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
G. St-Jean, C.H. Bastien, Sleep Disorders, in: J.C. Verster, S.R. Pandi-Perumal, D.L. Streiner (Eds.), Sleep and Quality of Life in Clinical Medicine, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2008: pp. 37–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Today Energy.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Why Are The Cassini Pictures Starless?, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Uncertainties Surrounding IRS’ Fiscal Year 1992 Budget Request for Tax System Modernization, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W.G. Morton, Isolating mycorrhizal fungi from Spiranthes vernalis for subsequent in vitro seed germination, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Chung, Chinatown Street Food vs. Mom’s, New York Times. (2016) A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Today Energy
ISSN (print)2468-6069

Other styles