How to format your references using the Materials Today Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Today Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.D. Sloan Jr, Fundamental principles and applications of natural gas hydrates, Nature. 426 (2003) 353–363.
A journal article with 2 authors
Z.-X. Luo, J.R. Wible, A Late Jurassic digging mammal and early mammalian diversification, Science. 308 (2005) 103–107.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Takayanagi, I. Kurisaki, M. Nagaoka, Non-site-specific allosteric effect of oxygen on human hemoglobin under high oxygen partial pressure, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4601.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W.F. Laurance, P. Delamônica, S.G. Laurance, H.L. Vasconcelos, T.E. Lovejoy, Rainforest fragmentation kills big trees, Nature. 404 (2000) 836.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G.A. Juhnke, D.H. Granello, P.F. Granello, Suicide, Self-Injury, and Violence in the Schools, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
N. Bhattacharya, P. Stubblefield, eds., Regenerative Medicine Using Pregnancy-Specific Biological Substances, Springer, London, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Gibson, The Polish Livonian Legacy in Latgalia: The Confluence of Slavic Ethnolects in the Baltic-Slavic Borderland, in: T. Kamusella, M. Nomachi, C. Gibson (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Slavic Languages, Identities and Borders, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 57–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Today Energy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Dwarf Galaxy Suddenly Produces Dazzling Star Clusters, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Activities of the Amtrak Inspector General, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.B. Prima, Waiting for Lefty: Adversity and the American Dream, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Johnson, Cancer, Scourge of Affluent Nations, New York Times. (2015) D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Today Energy
ISSN (print)2468-6069

Other styles