How to format your references using the Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology (PPE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Maddox B. The double helix and the “wronged heroine.” Nature 2003;421:407–408.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Petersen CP, Reddien PW. Smed-betacatenin-1 is required for anteroposterior blastema polarity in planarian regeneration. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2008;319:327–330.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Pullium JK, Roble GS, Raymond MA. Emergency planning: Be prepared. Nature 2014;514:430.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Guo D-Y, Shan C-X, Qu S-N, Shen D-Z. Highly sensitive ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated from ZnO quantum dots/carbon nanodots hybrid films. Scientific reports 2014;4:7469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Ventre D. Information Warfare. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1
Mastorakis N, Sakellaris J eds. Advances in Numerical Methods. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Sun X, Law EL-C. Towards a Structural Model for Intention to Play a Digital Educational Game. In: Transactions on Edutainment IV. Editors: Pan Z, Cheok AD, Müller W, Zhang X, Wong K: Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010; pp. 44–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology.

Blog post
1
Hale T. Which European City Takes The Most Drugs, According To Sewage Wastewater Analysis? https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/which-european-city-takes-the-most-drugs-according-to-sewage-wastewater-analysis/ (last accessed October 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Comprehensive FAA Plan for Global Positioning System Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Stuehling AL. “We Speak ‘Hola’ In School”: A Case Study of Global Education in a Partial-Immersion Spanish Preschool. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Walsh MW, Story L. Seeking Business, States Loosen Insurance Rules. New York Times. May 9, 2011:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePaediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
AbbreviationPaediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0269-5022
ISSN (online)1365-3016
ScopeEpidemiology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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