How to format your references using the Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology (PPE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Gee H. Progressive evolution: aspirational thinking. Nature 2002;420:611.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Miller JR, Simon P. Materials science. Electrochemical capacitors for energy management. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2008;321:651–652.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Yoon S-J, Yi SK, Lee Y-W. Explaining the color distributions of globular cluster systems in elliptical galaxies. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2006;311:1129–1132.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Hui YY, Su L-J, Chen OY, Chen Y-T, Liu T-M, Chang H-C. Wide-field imaging and flow cytometric analysis of cancer cells in blood by fluorescent nanodiamond labeling and time gating. Scientific reports 2014;4:5574.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Maier H. Chemiker im „Dritten Reich“. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
1
Cuevas-Maraver J, Kevrekidis PG, Williams F eds. The sine-Gordon Model and its Applications: From Pendula and Josephson Junctions to Gravity and High-Energy Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Fernández H, Tedeschi C, Priol T. Decentralized Workflow Coordination through Molecular Composition. In: Service-Oriented Computing - ICSOC 2011 Workshops: ICSOC 2011, International Workshops WESOA, NFPSLAM-SOC, and Satellite Events, Paphos, Cyprus, December 5-8, 2011. Revised Selected Papers. Editors: Pallis G, Jmaiel M, Charfi A, Graupner S, Karabulut Y, Guinea S, et al.: Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012; pp. 22–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Horses Use Eyes And Ears To Communicate. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/horses-use-eyes-and-ears-communicate/ (last accessed October 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Alternatives for the Bureau of Indian Affairs Public School Financial Assistance Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Stefanek A. Quantitative Purchasing Structure for Ferrous Scrap. 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Cline EH. Climate Change Doomed the Ancients. New York Times. May 28, 2014:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePaediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
AbbreviationPaediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0269-5022
ISSN (online)1365-3016
ScopeEpidemiology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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