How to format your references using the Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology (PPE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Dolan RJ. Emotion, cognition, and behavior. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2002;298:1191–1194.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
King DA, Thomas SM. Science and government. Taking science out of the box--foresight recast. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2007;316:1701–1702.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Davies A, Kemp AES, Pike J. Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic. Nature 2009;460:254–258.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Khang D-Y, Jiang H, Huang Y, Rogers JA. A stretchable form of single-crystal silicon for high-performance electronics on rubber substrates. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2006;311:208–212.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Rigo M. Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems 2. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1
Ferro N ed. Bridging Between Information Retrieval and Databases: PROMISE Winter School 2013, Bressanone, Italy, February 4-8, 2013. Revised Tutorial Lectures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Burau V, Dahl HM. Trajectories of Change in Danish Long Term Care Policies—Reproduction by Adaptation through Top-Down and Bottom-Up Reforms. In: Reforms in Long-Term Care Policies in Europe: Investigating Institutional Change and Social Impacts. Editors: Ranci C, Pavolini E: New York, NY: Springer, 2013; pp. 79–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology.

Blog post
1
Hamilton K. Velvet Worm Slimes Prey In Wild Spray Attack. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/how-velvet-worm-slimes-prey-wild-spray-attack/ (last accessed October 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security Information Sharing: Results of GAO’s Survey of Stakeholder Satisfaction with TSA Products and Mechanisms (GAO-14-488SP, June 2014), an E-supplement to GAO-14-506. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Harvey J. Predicting Cost-Inflicting Mate Retention Tactic Use in Women with Borderline Personality Features: Examining the Roles of Maladaptive Schemas and Reactive Aggression. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Lasdun J. Odd Coupling. New York Times. May 19, 2017:BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePaediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
AbbreviationPaediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0269-5022
ISSN (online)1365-3016
ScopeEpidemiology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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