How to format your references using the Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology (PPE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith K. Treatment frontiers. Nature 2010;466:S15-8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sercombe TB, Schaffer GB. Rapid manufacturing of aluminum components. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003;301:1225–1227.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reese C, Heise F, Mayer A. Trans-SNARE pairing can precede a hemifusion intermediate in intracellular membrane fusion. Nature 2005;436:410–414.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yamanouchi M, Chiba D, Matsukura F, Ohno H. Current-induced domain-wall switching in a ferromagnetic semiconductor structure. Nature 2004;428:539–542.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Temple LP III. Implosion. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Wu Y ed. Computing and Intelligent Systems: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011. Proceedings, Part IV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Jakushokas R, Popovich M, Mezhiba AV, Köse S, Friedman EG. Electromigration. In: Power Distribution Networks with On-Chip Decoupling Capacitors. Editors: Popovich M, Mezhiba AV, Köse S, Friedman EG: New York, NY: Springer, 2011; pp. 71–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Activists Misuse Open Records Requests To Harass Researchers. (last accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Executive Guide: Leading Practices in Capital Decision-Making (Supersedes AIMD-98-110). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fino M. Fruit and vegetable intake and exercise practices of college students of color. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. After Stand on Gays, New Name Urged for Margaret Court Arena. New York Times. May 31, 2017:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePaediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
AbbreviationPaediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0269-5022
ISSN (online)1365-3016
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles