How to format your references using the Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Halavais, A., 2011. Social science: Open up online research. Nature 480, 174–175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jung, H., Karato S, 2001. Water-induced fabric transitions in olivine. Science 293, 1460–1463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Trail, D., Watson, E.B., Tailby, N.D., 2011. The oxidation state of Hadean magmas and implications for early Earth’s atmosphere. Nature 480, 79–82.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lim, P.-E., Tan, J., Eamsobhana, P., Yong, H.S., 2013. Distinct genetic clades of Malaysian Copera damselflies and the phylogeny of platycnemine subfamilies. Sci. Rep. 3, 2977.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, P., Brousse, T., Favier, F., 2017. Supercapacitors Based on Carbon or Pseudocapacitive Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zhang, Y., Tanaka, K., Yu, J.X., Wang, S., Li, M. (Eds.), 2005. Web Technologies Research and Development - APWeb 2005: 7th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, Shanghai, China, March 29 - April 1, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Grishchuk, S., Schledjewski, R., 2013. Mechanical Dispersion Methods for Carbon Nanotubes in Aerospace Composite Matrix Systems, in: Paipetis, A., Kostopoulos, V. (Eds.), Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Aerospace Composite Materials: A New Generation of Multifunctional Hybrid Structural Composites, Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 99–154.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Exotic Matter Research Wins The Nobel Prize In Physics [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Information Technology: INS Needs to Strengthen Its Investment Management Capability (No. GAO-01-146). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitchell, V.M., 2014. A phenomenological study factors African American female college students face participating in engineering STEM majors (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum, W.K., Mueller, B., 2015. Escaped Killer Is Fatally Shot in New York. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Halavais, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Halavais, 2011; Jung and Karato S, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jung and Karato S, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Lim et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN (print)2405-8831

Other styles