How to format your references using the Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Howlett R. Population ecology. Birds in a buffer state. Nature. 2001;412(6845):396.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brambila DS, Fratalocchi A. Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2359.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miles MA, Yeo M, Mauricio IL. Genetics. Leishmania exploit sex. Science. 2009;324(5924):187-189.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
van Zoest T, Gaaloul N, Singh Y, et al. Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity. Science. 2010;328(5985):1540-1543.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinzinger S, Jahns J. Microoptics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Ito K, ed. Regulatory Nascent Polypeptides. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Huml RA. Investment Considerations for Pharmaceutical Product Portfolios. In: Antonijevic Z, ed. Optimization of Pharmaceutical R&D Programs and Portfolios: Design and Investment Strategy. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:49-69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Even The Pope Gets It – Carbon Markets Won’t Fix The Climate. IFLScience. Published June 23, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Johnstown Area Flood of 1977: A Case Study for the Future. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim T. Information-Theoretic Aspects of Signal Analysis and Reconstruction. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Cowen T. A U.S. Middle-Class Revival, Powered by China. New York Times. April 15, 2016:BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemiology
ISSN (print)1044-3983
ISSN (online)1531-5487

Other styles