How to format your references using the Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Brody H. Influenza. Nature. 2011;480(7376):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Wang Y-Y, Zhang T. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6369.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Croxall JP, Trathan PN, Murphy EJ. Environmental change and Antarctic seabird populations. Science. 2002;297(5586):1510-1514.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Wolpoff MH, Senut B, Pickford M, Hawks J. Palaeoanthropology. Sahelanthropus or “Sahelpithecus”? Nature. 2002;419(6907):581-582; discussion 582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
J.G. Upton G. Categorical Data Analysis by Example. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Wessells H, ed. Urological Emergencies: A Practical Approach. 2nd ed. 2013. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Clark JP, Lau NC. Piwi Proteins and piRNAs Step onto the Systems Biology Stage. In: Yeo GW, ed. Systems Biology of RNA Binding Proteins. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer; 2014:159-197.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemiology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Watch Two Astronauts Live On Their Spacewalk Outside The ISS. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Safeguarding Taxpayer Information: An Evaluation of the Proposed Computerized Tax Administration System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Anderson SL. Ninth grade transition: Best practices for a successful transition to high school. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hubbard B. With Driving Ban Ending, Saudis Wonder Which Rules Will Fall Next. New York Times. September 27, 2017:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemiology
AbbreviationEpidemiology
ISSN (print)1044-3983
ISSN (online)1531-5487
ScopeEpidemiology

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