How to format your references using the Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hellemans A. SPACE SCIENCE: Europe Set to Work on Hubble’s Replacement. Science. 2000;289(5487):2019a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boltasseva A, Shalaev VM. Materials science. All that glitters need not be gold. Science. 2015;347(6228):1308-1310.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moore JD, Kirk JA, Hunt T. Unmasking the S-phase-promoting potential of cyclin B1. Science. 2003;300(5621):987-990.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Barnosky AD, Matzke N, Tomiya S, et al. Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature. 2011;471(7336):51-57.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carne EB. Connections for the Digital Age. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Kumar S. Concrete Fracture Models and Applications. (Barai SV, ed.). Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
O’Hearn P. Tutorial on Separation Logic (Invited Tutorial). In: Gupta A, Malik S, eds. Computer Aided Verification: 20th International Conference, CAV 2008 Princeton, NJ, USA, July 7-14, 2008 Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2008:19-21.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrews R. Australia Will Suddenly Move 1.8 Meters North On New Year’s Day. IFLScience. Published August 1, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Acquisition Reform: NASA’s Internet Service Improves Access to Contracting Information. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horaist DW. Estimating Seed Bank Responses to Changing Environmental Conditions in the Louisiana Coastal Zone. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B, Silver-Greenberg J. JPMorgan Said to Settle in Chinese Bribery Case. New York Times. November 17, 2016:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemiology
ISSN (print)1044-3983
ISSN (online)1531-5487

Other styles