How to format your references using the Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman KS. India’s finest, for hire. Nature. 2000;407(6806):830-831.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hibberd JM, Quick WP. Characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in stems and petioles of C3 flowering plants. Nature. 2002;415(6870):451-454.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stern P, Hines PJ, Travis J. The aging brain. Introduction. Science. 2014;346(6209):566-567.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Matsubayashi Y, Ogawa M, Morita A, Sakagami Y. An LRR receptor kinase involved in perception of a peptide plant hormone, phytosulfokine. Science. 2002;296(5572):1470-1472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiman J. As Free and as Just as Possible. Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Zwald F, Brown MD, eds. Advances in Transplant Dermatology: Clinical and Practical Implications. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Hofmann E, Maucher D, Piesker S, Richter P. Measures for Strengthening Internal Financing Power from a Supply Chain Viewpoint. In: Maucher D, Piesker S, Richter P, eds. Ways Out of the Working Capital Trap: Empowering Self-Financing Growth Through Modern Supply Management. Springer; 2011:55-73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemiology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. New NASA Budget Would Cut Manned Asteroid Mission But Fund Journey To Alpha Centauri. IFLScience. Published May 25, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Medicare Automated Systems: Weaknesses in Managing Information Technology Hinder Fight Against Fraud and Abuse. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grugan PK. The Mindfulness Practice of Clinicians: A Systematic Review. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lowry MP. Watching Assumptions Walk Out the Door. New York Times. May 24, 2015:BU7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemiology
ISSN (print)1044-3983
ISSN (online)1531-5487

Other styles