How to format your references using the Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Skinner L. Climate change. A long view on climate sensitivity. Science. 2012;337(6097):917-919.
A journal article with 2 authors
Henderson GM, Slowey NC. Evidence from U-Th dating against Northern Hemisphere forcing of the penultimate deglaciation. Nature. 2000;404(6773):61-66.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doncaster CP, Pound GE, Cox SJ. The ecological cost of sex. Nature. 2000;404(6775):281-285.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Got JL, Monteiller V, Monteux J, Hassani R, Okubo P. Deformation and rupture of the oceanic crust may control growth of Hawaiian volcanoes. Nature. 2008;451(7177):453-456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kelly VA. ADDICTION in the Family: What Every Counselor Needs to Know. American Counseling Association; 2015.
An edited book
Detyniecki M, García-Serrano A, Nürnberger A, Stober S, eds. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval. Large-Scale Multimedia Retrieval and Evaluation: 9th International Workshop, AMR 2011, Barcelona, Spain, July 18-19, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 7836. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Andersen ML, D’Almeida V, Ko GM, Martins PJF, Tufik S. Care and Maintenance of Laboratory Animals. In: Andersen ML, Tufik S, eds. Rodent Model as Tools in Ethical Biomedical Research. Springer International Publishing; 2016:23-37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemiology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Construction Workers Unearthed Something Very Unexpected While Digging A Hole. IFLScience. Published November 28, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA: Issues Surrounding the Transition from the Space Shuttle to the Next Generation of Human Space Flight Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mowery K. Beneath the Attack Surface. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ryerson J. University Presses. New York Times. November 18, 2016:BR35.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemiology
ISSN (print)1044-3983
ISSN (online)1531-5487

Other styles