How to format your references using the Pacific Science Review A: Natural Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pacific Science Review A: Natural Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.J. Russell, Geochemistry. The importance of being alkaline, Science. 302 (2003) 580–581.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.R. Esmaeili-Rad, S. Salahuddin, High performance molybdenum disulfide amorphous silicon heterojunction photodetector, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2345.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.M. Latimer, J.A. Silander Jr, R.M. Cowling, Neutral ecological theory reveals isolation and rapid speciation in a biodiversity hot spot, Science. 309 (2005) 1722–1725.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K.T. Lorenz, D.W. Chandler, J.W. Barr, W. Chen, G.L. Barnes, J.I. Cline, Direct measurement of the preferred sense of NO rotation after collision with argon, Science. 293 (2001) 2063–2066.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Zauderer, Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
W. Jonker, M. Petković, eds., Secure Data Management: Third VLDB Workshop, SDM 2006, Seoul, Korea, September 10-11, 2006. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Dever, G.W. Hamilton, Automatically Partitioning Data to Facilitate the Parallelization of Functional Programs, in: A. Voronkov, I. Virbitskaite (Eds.), Perspectives of System Informatics: 9th International Ershov Informatics Conference, PSI 2014, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 24-27, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 59–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pacific Science Review A: Natural Science and Engineering.

Blog post
J. Davis, Scientists Create A Mind-Controlled Turtle, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: Efforts to Implement Flight Operational Quality Assurance Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.S. Eller, Social media as avenue for personal learning for educators: Personal learning networks encourage application of knowledge and skills, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J.O. Murphy, The Rise of Modigliani’s Profile, and the Asking Prices for His Works, New York Times. (2015) C36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePacific Science Review A: Natural Science and Engineering
ISSN (print)2405-8823

Other styles