How to format your references using the Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pearce JM. Physics: Make nanotechnology research open-source. Nature. 2012;491(7425):519-521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greenberger MD, Vogelstein R. Public health. Pharmacist refusals: a threat to women’s health. Science. 2005;308(5728):1557-1558.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mugnier MR, Cross GAM, Papavasiliou FN. The in vivo dynamics of antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei. Science. 2015;347(6229):1470-1473.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gunawardane LS, Saito K, Nishida KM, et al. A slicer-mediated mechanism for repeat-associated siRNA 5’ end formation in Drosophila. Science. 2007;315(5818):1587-1590.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van der Heide P. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Bonazza R, Ranjan D, eds. 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves 1: Volume 1. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Claverol M, Garijo D, Korman M, Seara C, Silveira RI. Stabbing Segments with Rectilinear Objects. In: Kosowski A, Walukiewicz I, eds. Fundamentals of Computation Theory: 20th International Symposium, FCT 2015, Gdańsk, Poland, August 17-19, 2015, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2015:53-64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Library of Congress opens online exhibit for Carl Sagan’s papers. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Work Force Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shan J. A Theoretical Investigation of Radial Lateral Wells with Shockwave Completion in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kleinfield NR, Fitzsimmons EG. Friends and Work Colleagues Remembering Lives Lost in the Metro-North Crash. New York Times. February 5, 2015:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOtolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
AbbreviationOtolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
ISSN (print)0194-5998
ISSN (online)1097-6817

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