How to format your references using the Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May M. Antibiotics. Nature. 2014;509(7498):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enemark EJ, Joshua-Tor L. Mechanism of DNA translocation in a replicative hexameric helicase. Nature. 2006;442(7100):270-275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rabinovich M, Huerta R, Laurent G. Neuroscience. Transient dynamics for neural processing. Science. 2008;321(5885):48-50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Morishita Y, Yoshizawa H, Watanabe M, et al. siRNAs targeted to Smad4 prevent renal fibrosis in vivo. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6424.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chartered Institute of Building. Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Poo D. Object-Oriented Programming and Java. Second edition. (Kiong D, Ashok S, eds.). Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Itzstein M von, Thomson R. Anti-Influenza Drugs: The Development of Sialidase Inhibitors. In: Kräusslich H-G, Bartenschlager R, eds. Antiviral Strategies. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Springer; 2009:111-154.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Long Reach Of The Past: Did Prehistoric Humans Shape Today’s Ecosystems? IFLScience. Published August 27, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Operations of and Outlook for the Highway Trust Fund. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Skinner R. Artistiya: Popular music and personhood in postcolonial Bamako, Mali. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Parade’s End. New York Times. August 14, 2016:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOtolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
AbbreviationOtolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
ISSN (print)0194-5998
ISSN (online)1097-6817

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