How to format your references using the Computers in Industry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers in Industry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. May, Risk and uncertainty, Nature. 411 (2001) 891.
A journal article with 2 authors
V. Schmidt, U. Gösele, Materials science. How nanowires grow, Science. 316 (2007) 698–699.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Frank, N. Sonenberg, B. Nagar, Structural basis for 5’-nucleotide base-specific recognition of guide RNA by human AGO2, Nature. 465 (2010) 818–822.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Luo, J. Wu, J. Luo, J. Huang, V.P. Dravid, Dynamics of electrochemical lithiation/delithiation of graphene-encapsulated silicon nanoparticles studied by in-situ TEM, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3863.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Prutchi, S.R. Prutchi, Exploring Quantum Physics Through Hands-On Projects, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
M. Chaudhary, Practical jQuery, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
K.-P. Zauner, From Prescriptive Programming of Solid-State Devices to Orchestrated Self-organisation of Informed Matter, in: J.-P. Banâtre, P. Fradet, J.-L. Giavitto, O. Michel (Eds.), Unconventional Programming Paradigms: International Workshop UPP 2004, Le Mont Saint Michel, France, September 15-17, 2004, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005: pp. 47–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers in Industry.

Blog post
J. Fang, Hubble Telescope Spots Smiley Face, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA Budget: Carryover Balances in Selected Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.L. Pence, Emotional intelligence, motivation, and retention among undergraduate students attending associate-degree nursing programs in Illinois, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Tomasky, A Bad Deal for Democrats, New York Times. (2017) A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers in Industry
AbbreviationComput. Ind.
ISSN (print)0166-3615
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
General Engineering

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