How to format your references using the Otolaryngologia Polska citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Otolaryngologia Polska. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vespignani A. Predicting the behavior of techno-social systems. Science 2009;325:425–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakse N, Pasturel A. Liquid Aluminum: atomic diffusion and viscosity from ab initio molecular dynamics. Sci Rep 2013;3:3135.
A journal article with 3 authors
André P, Ward-Thompson D, Greaves J. Interferometric identification of a pre-brown dwarf. Science 2012;337:69–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Woo PCY, Lam C-W, Tam EWT, Lee K-C, Yung KKY, Leung CKF, et al. The biosynthetic pathway for a thousand-year-old natural food colorant and citrinin in Penicillium marneffei. Sci Rep 2014;4:6728.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazze RS, Strock ES, Bergenstal RM, Criego A, Cuddihy R, Langer O, et al. Staged Diabetes Management. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Kroll N, Hirsch C, Bassi F, Johnston C, Hillewaert K, editors. IDIHOM: Industrialization of High-Order Methods - A Top-Down Approach: Results of a Collaborative Research Project Funded by the European Union, 2010 - 2014. vol. 128. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Nguyen LHV, Bonnet C. Stabilization of Some Fractional Neutral Delay Systems Which Possibly Possess an Infinite Number of Unstable Poles. In: Seuret A, Özbay H, Bonnet C, Mounier H, editors. Low-Complexity Controllers for Time-Delay Systems, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Otolaryngologia Polska.

Blog post
Hale T. Brains Of Pedophiles Who Abuse Children Are Wired Differently To Those Who Don’t. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aircraft Certification: New FAA Approach Needed to Meet Challenges of Advanced Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson P. A Case Study of the Efficacy of Middle College on Educational Advancement. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justice Dept. Admits Error In Failure To Brief Court. New York Times 2008:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOtolaryngologia Polska
AbbreviationOtolaryngol. Pol.
ISSN (print)0030-6657

Other styles