How to format your references using the Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Lamb S. Walking with producers. Nature 2001;412:277.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Aychek T, Jung S. Immunology. The axis of tolerance. Science 2014;343:1439–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Råberg L, Sim D, Read AF. Disentangling genetic variation for resistance and tolerance to infectious diseases in animals. Science 2007;318:812–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Sun J, Pang ZP, Qin D, Fahim AT, Adachi R, Südhof TC. A dual-Ca2+-sensor model for neurotransmitter release in a central synapse. Nature 2007;450:676–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Pohl J. Building Science. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Poleshchuk O. Expert Fuzzy Information Processing. vol. 268. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Ciocon DH, Bae YS, Kilmer SL. Ablative and Non-ablative Fractional Resurfacing. In: Goldberg DJ, editor. Laser Dermatology, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 89–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia.

Blog post
[1]
Hamilton K. This New Treatment Could Make Pancreatic Cancer A Manageable Disease. IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/this-new-treatment-could-make-pancreatic-cancer-a-manageable-disease/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Public Schools: Implementation and Sustainability of Reform Efforts Could Benefit From Enhanced Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Ponti CM. The musical representation of Asian characters in the musicals of Richard Rodgers. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kenigsberg B. By the Time It Gets Dark. New York Times 2017:C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOsteoporosis and Sarcopenia
AbbreviationOsteoporos. Sarcopenia
ISSN (print)2405-5255
Scope

Other styles