How to format your references using the Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pessoa L. Neuroscience. Seeing the world in the same way. Science 2004;303:1617–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shelke SA, Piccirilli JA. Origins of life: RNA made in its own mirror image. Nature 2014;515:347–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Emile O, Le Floch A, Vollrath F. Biopolymers: shape memory in spider draglines. Nature 2006;440:621.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wu H, Li H, Kwok RTK, Zhao E, Sun JZ, Qin A, et al. A recyclable and reusable supported Cu(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne click polymerization. Sci Rep 2014;4:5107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Recognizing Catastrophic Incident Warning Signs in the Process Industries. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Attarian HP. Atlas of Electroencephalography in Sleep Medicine. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Rañó I, Jokeit J-S. A Wandering Braitenberg Vehicle 2b That Densely Covers a Bounded Workspace. In: Herrmann G, Studley M, Pearson M, Conn A, Melhuish C, Witkowski M, et al., editors. Advances in Autonomous Robotics: Joint Proceedings of the 13th Annual TAROS Conference and the 15th Annual FIRA RoboWorld Congress, Bristol, UK, August 20-23, 2012, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Why You Can Expect A Spectacular Autumn. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Assistance Provided to Institutions of Higher Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Piekielek JA. Public wildlands at the U.S.-Mexico border: Where conservation, migration, and border enforcement collide. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J, Barnes B. A Lavish Emmy Campaign. New York Times 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOsteoporosis and Sarcopenia
AbbreviationOsteoporos. Sarcopenia
ISSN (print)2405-5255

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