How to format your references using the Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lovelock J. Gaia: the living Earth. Nature 2003;426:769–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knobel RG, Cleland AN. Nanometre-scale displacement sensing using a single electron transistor. Nature 2003;424:291–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hempson GP, Archibald S, Bond WJ. A continent-wide assessment of the form and intensity of large mammal herbivory in Africa. Science 2015;350:1056–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Richardson AD, Hufkens K, Milliman T, Aubrecht DM, Furze ME, Seyednasrollah B, et al. Ecosystem warming extends vegetation activity but heightens vulnerability to cold temperatures. Nature 2018;560:368–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fant KM. Logically Determined Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Brahnam S, Jain LC, editors. Advanced Computational Intelligence Paradigms in Healthcare 5: Intelligent Decision Support Systems. vol. 326. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
McGee RW. The Role of Stakeholders in Corporate Governance. In: McGee RW, editor. Corporate Governance in Transition Economies, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009, p. 35–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia.

Blog post
Fang J. Unevolved Galaxy Hails from the Early Universe. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at Western Carolina University and Participating Schools in North Carolina. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nistal França FJ. Nondestructive Evaluation of Southern Pine Lumber. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. Taking in the History of a City Shaped by the Sea. New York Times 2014:CT10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOsteoporosis and Sarcopenia
AbbreviationOsteoporos. Sarcopenia
ISSN (print)2405-5255

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