How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Zoback MD. Earth science. Strength of the San Andreas. Nature. 2000;405(6782):31-32.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Gray GM, Cohen JT. Policy: Rethink chemical risk assessments. Nature. 2012;489(7414):27-28.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Mo Y, Turner KT, Szlufarska I. Friction laws at the nanoscale. Nature. 2009;457(7233):1116-1119.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Hu L, Zhang Y, Hong M, et al. Phylogenetic evidence for multiple intertypic recombinations in enterovirus B81 strains isolated in Tibet, China. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6035.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Mowlaee P, Kulmer J, Stahl J, Mayer F. Single Channel Phase-Aware Signal Processing in Speech Communication: Theory and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Casteleyn S. Engineering Web Applications. (Daniel F, Dolog P, Matera M, eds.). Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Borkar T, Mohseni H, Hwang J, et al. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) / Graphene Nanoplatelet (GNP)-Nickel Nanocomposites: Structure Property Analysis. In: Sano T, Srivatsan TS, eds. Advanced Composites for Aerospace, Marine, and Land Applications II. Springer International Publishing; 2016:53-79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Epidemiology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D. What If Intelligent Machines Could Learn From Each Other? IFLScience. Published August 9, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/what-if-intelligent-machines-could-learn-from-each-other/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Costs Reported by Federal Organizations for Fiscal Year 1995. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Royalty AR. U.S. Military Advisors in Iraq: A Phenomenological Research Study on the Role of National Culture on Tactical Decision-making during Wartime. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Pilon M. Saudi Team Is Opened to Women. New York Times. June 26, 2012:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Epidemiology
AbbreviationOphthalmic Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0928-6586
ISSN (online)1744-5086
ScopeEpidemiology
Ophthalmology

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