How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White TD. Obituary: F. Clark Howell (1925-2007). Nature. 2007;447(7140):52.
A journal article with 2 authors
Katan MB, de Roos NM. Public health. Toward evidence-based health claims for foods. Science. 2003;299(5604):206-207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richmond JE, Weimer RM, Jorgensen EM. An open form of syntaxin bypasses the requirement for UNC-13 in vesicle priming. Nature. 2001;412(6844):338-341.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee JG, McIlvain BJ, Lobb CJ, Hill WT 3rd. Analogs of basic electronic circuit elements in a free-space atom chip. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1034.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ushakov I. Probabilistic Reliability Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Edmonds B, Meyer R, eds. Simulating Social Complexity: A Handbook. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Karadimce A, Davcev D. Adaptive Multimedia Delivery in M-Learning Systems Using Profiling. In: Trajkovik V, Anastas M, eds. ICT Innovations 2013: ICT Innovations and Education. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing; 2014:57-65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Epidemiology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Three Category 4 Hurricanes Churn In The Pacific Ocean. IFLScience. Published September 2, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. IV, No. 6. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton DL. Preparing instrumental teachers: A resource for volunteer, lay music teachers in Salvation Army churches. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmitt E, Gordon MR, Sengupta S. U.S. Ties Russia to Strike on U.N. Convoy in Syria. New York Times. September 20, 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Epidemiology
AbbreviationOphthalmic Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0928-6586
ISSN (online)1744-5086

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