How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Alesina A. Economics. Women, fertility, and the rise of modern capitalism. Science. 2013;342(6157):427-428.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Guillot C, Lecuit T. Mechanics of epithelial tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. Science. 2013;340(6137):1185-1189.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Heinsohn R, Legge S, Endler JA. Extreme reversed sexual dichromatism in a bird without sex role reversal. Science. 2005;309(5734):617-619.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Nahlen BL, Korenromp EL, Miller JM, Shibuya K. Malaria risk: estimating clinical episodes of malaria. Nature. 2005;437(7056):E3; discussion E4-5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Kang S. Micro/Nano Replication. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Chafai D. Recueil de Modèles Aléatoires. Vol 78. (Malrieu F, ed.). Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gontier N. Historical and Epistemological Perspectives on What Horizontal Gene Transfer Mechanisms Contribute to Our Understanding of Evolution. In: Gontier N, ed. Reticulate Evolution: Symbiogenesis, Lateral Gene Transfer, Hybridization and Infectious Heredity. Interdisciplinary Evolution Research. Springer International Publishing; 2015:121-178.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Epidemiology.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Sloth Evolution Not So Slothful After All. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Education and Workforce Data: Challenges in Matching Student and Worker Information Raise Concerns about Longitudinal Data Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Spisak GM. Particulation. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Koblin J, Corasaniti N. One Nation, Under Fox. New York Times. March 25, 2017:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Epidemiology
AbbreviationOphthalmic Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0928-6586
ISSN (online)1744-5086
ScopeEpidemiology
Ophthalmology

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