How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
French C. Archaeology. People, societies, and landscapes. Science. 2010;328(5977):443-444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armstrong FA, Fontecilla-Camps JC. Biochemistry. A natural choice for activating hydrogen. Science. 2008;321(5888):498-499.
A journal article with 3 authors
Perryman SAM, Clark SJ, West JS. Splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa conidia from infected citrus fruit. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6568.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu W, Jawerth LM, Sparks EA, et al. Fibrin fibers have extraordinary extensibility and elasticity. Science. 2006;313(5787):634.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Snell RS, Lemp MA. Clinical Anatomy of the Eye. Blackwell Science Ltd,.; 1997.
An edited book
Chou SY, Trappey A, Pokojski J, Smith S, eds. Global Perspective for Competitive Enterprise, Economy and Ecology: Proceedings of the 16th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Majeed SS, Fleury M. Multi-connection TFRC Video Streaming in a Concatenated Network: Latency and Video Quality. In: Özcan A, Chaki N, Nagamalai D, eds. Recent Trends in Wireless and Mobile Networks: Second International Conference, WiMo 2010, Ankara, Turkey, June 26-28, 2010. Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer; 2010:34-45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Is Aircraft Cabin Air Toxic? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Funding Provided to 10 Police Departments for Intelligence Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Gilder BJ. American Students’ Communication Abroad: Factors Promoting and Inhibiting Interactions with Host Nationals. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. A Souped-Up Revival Roars in London. New York Times. April 30, 2017:C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Epidemiology
AbbreviationOphthalmic Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0928-6586
ISSN (online)1744-5086

Other styles