How to format your references using the Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman T. Starting from scratch. Nature. 2004 Jul 1;430(6995):113.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alekseev V, Lampert W. Maternal control of resting-egg production in Daphnia. Nature. 2001;414(6866):899–901.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koedinger KR, Booth JL, Klahr D. Education research. Instructional complexity and the science to constrain it. Science. 2013 Nov 22;342(6161):935–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Deng Y, Gao T, Gao H, Yao X, Xie L. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 17;4:5693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown BL, Hendrix SB, Hedges DW, Smith TB. Multivariate Analysis for the Biobehavioral and Social Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Fleischhacker WW, Brooks DJ, editors. Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Vienna: Springer; 2005. VII, 141 p. With numerous illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Böttcher B, Schilling R, Wang J. Sample Path Properties. In: Schilling R, Wang J, editors. Lévy Matters III: Lévy-Type Processes: Construction, Approximation and Sample Path Properties. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013. p. 111–40. (Lecture Notes in Mathematics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore.

Blog post
Andrew E. Newly-Discovered “Bat Frog” Named After Ozzy Osbourne [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Condition of Information on Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Feb. Report No.: 129118.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carpenter DM. Understanding the effect of conflicting information on medication adherence for vasculitis patients [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Netflix, With Money to Burn, Draws the Ire of Spurned TV Executives. New York Times. 2017 Jun 13;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore
ISSN (print)0304-4602

Other styles