How to format your references using the Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Duflo E. Rigorous evaluation of human behavior. Science. 2012 Jun 15;336(6087):1398.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Mallon WT, Korn D. Education. Bonus pay for research faculty. Science. 2004 Jan 23;303(5657):476–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Toulokhonov I, Artsimovitch I, Landick R. Allosteric control of RNA polymerase by a site that contacts nascent RNA hairpins. Science. 2001 Apr 27;292(5517):730–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Meyer JC, Geim AK, Katsnelson MI, Novoselov KS, Booth TJ, Roth S. The structure of suspended graphene sheets. Nature. 2007 Mar 1;446(7131):60–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases & Clinical Challenges. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Wittinghofer A, editor. Ras Superfamily Small G Proteins: Biology and Mechanisms 1: General Features, Signaling. Vienna: Springer; 2014. XIV, 445 p. 85 illus., 83 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Metkar S, Talbar S. Conclusion and Research Direction. In: Talbar S, editor. Motion Estimation Techniques for Digital Video Coding. New Delhi: Springer India; 2013. p. 61–4. (SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti C. NASA Just Released Some Seriously Cool Videos Of Fire In Microgravity. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: A Comparison of Federal and State Highway Laws. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Jun. Report No.: RCED-90-157.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Jordan EA. The semiconductor industry and emerging technologies: A study using a modified Delphi method [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Neuman W. Colombian Rebels Call Unilateral Truce. New York Times. 2014 Dec 18;A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore
ISSN (print)0304-4602
Scope

Other styles