How to format your references using the Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCabe H. France sets up elite Internet school. Nature. 2000 May 25;405(6785):381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore MJ, Early GA. Cumulative sperm whale bone damage and the bends. Science. 2004 Dec 24;306(5705):2215.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stajic J, Coontz R, Osborne I. Superconductivity. Happy 100th, superconductivity! Introduction. Science. 2011 Apr 8;332(6026):189.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fierro S, Seishima R, Nagano O, Saya H, Einaga Y. In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: application to stomach disorder diagnosis. Sci Rep. 2013 Nov 19;3:3257.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fryirs KA, Brierley GJ. Geomorphic Analysis of River Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Rao KR. Psychology in the Indian Tradition. 1st ed. 2016. Paranjpe AC, editor. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016. XVII, 387 p. 3 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Beaudry M, Lemieux F. Faithful Loops for Aperiodic E-Ordered Monoids. In: Albers S, Marchetti-Spaccamela A, Matias Y, Nikoletseas S, Thomas W, editors. Automata, Languages and Programming: 36th Internatilonal Collogquium, ICALP 2009, Rhodes, greece, July 5-12, 2009, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 55–66. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore.

Blog post
Luntz S. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Stephen Fry Gets His Own Asteroid. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Questions Remain on the Costs, Uses, and Risks of the Redesigned Space Station. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 May. Report No.: T-NSIAD-91-26.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hertzman R. Yemen’s migrant networks as critical factor in political opposition to the Imamate [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. The Flea Makes a Big Move in TriBeCa. New York Times. 2017 Aug 31;C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore
ISSN (print)0304-4602

Other styles