How to format your references using the Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schrag DP. Of ice and elephants. Nature. 2000 Mar 2;404(6773):23–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
McLean PF, Cooley L. Protein equilibration through somatic ring canals in Drosophila. Science. 2013 Jun 21;340(6139):1445–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang Z, White PS, Brookhart M. Ligand exchanges and selective catalytic hydrogenation in molecular single crystals. Nature. 2010 Jun 3;465(7298):598–601.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee J, Hamada S, Hwang SU, Amin R, Son J, Dugasani SR, et al. Quantitative analysis of molecular-level DNA crystal growth on a 2D surface. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang W, Shmulevich I, Astola J. Microarray Quality Control. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Malinowska AB. Advanced Methods in the Fractional Calculus of Variations. Odzijewicz T, Torres DFM, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XII, 135 p. (SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology).
A chapter in an edited book
Prenat G, Jabeur K, Di Pendina G, Boulle O, Gaudin G. Beyond STT-MRAM, Spin Orbit Torque RAM SOT-MRAM for High Speed and High Reliability Applications. In: Zhao W, Prenat G, editors. Spintronics-based Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 145–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore.

Blog post
Andrew E. Is The Changing Definition Of Autism Narrowing What We Think Of As ‘Normal’? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Information on Incentive Compensation Violations Substantiated by the U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Feb. Report No.: GAO-10-370R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Vlack KA. Puaxant tuvip: Powerlands Southern Paiute cultural landscapes and pilgrimage trails [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Martin V. Pitfalls of Privilege. New York Times. 2014 Aug 13;BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore
ISSN (print)0304-4602

Other styles