How to format your references using the Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gammon D. Electrons in artificial atoms. Nature. 2000 Jun 22;405(6789):899–900.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marone F, Romanowicz B. The depth distribution of azimuthal anisotropy in the continental upper mantle. Nature. 2007 May 10;447(7141):198–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wessling M, Morcillo LG, Abdu S. Nanometer-thick lateral polyelectrolyte micropatterns induce macrosopic electro-osmotic chaotic fluid instabilities. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 6;4:4294.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Silva AJ, Zhou Y, Rogerson T, Shobe J, Balaji J. Molecular and cellular approaches to memory allocation in neural circuits. Science. 2009 Oct 16;326(5951):391–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samuel GR. Formulas and Calculations for Drilling Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Cao J, Mao K, Cambria E, Man Z, Toh K-A, editors. Proceedings of ELM-2014 Volume 1: Algorithms and Theories. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. VIII, 446 p. 124 illus. (Proceedings in Adaptation, Learning and Optimization; vol. 3).
A chapter in an edited book
Choi T-M, Chiu C-H. Mean-Risk Analysis: Conclusion, Future Research and Extensions. In: Chiu C-H, editor. Risk Analysis in Stochastic Supply Chains: A Mean-Risk Approach. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 87–95. (International Series in Operations Research & Management Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore.

Blog post
Davis J. Last Moments Of An Epic Battle Between Two Moose Perfectly Preserved In Ice [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Loan Guarantee Provisions of H.R. 13350, the 1977 Authorization Bill for the Energy Research and Development Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Jan. Report No.: B-178726.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Springborn T. The Importance of Teacher/Student Relationships [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. In Prime Time, a Rerun of the President’s Favorite Falsehoods. New York Times. 2017 Mar 16;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore
ISSN (print)0304-4602

Other styles