How to format your references using the Global Ecology and Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Ecology and Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. (2013) Chronobiology: stepping out of time. Nature, 497, S10-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meselson, M. & Mark Welch, D. (2007) Evolution. Stable heterozygosity? Science (New York, N.Y.), 318, 202–203.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lowes, M.A., Bowcock, A.M. & Krueger, J.G. (2007) Pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis. Nature, 445, 866–873.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Becker, L., Poreda, R.J., Hunt, A.G., Bunch, T.E. & Rampino, M. (2001) Impact event at the Permian-Triassic boundary: evidence from extraterrestrial noble gases in fullerenes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291, 1530–1533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazzi, B. (2013) Treasury Finance and Development Banking, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Marsden, J.E. (2007) Hamiltonian Reduction by Stages, (ed. by G. Misiolek), J.-P. Ortega), M. Perlmutter), and T.S. Ratiu) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Durham, T.S., Johari, P. & Bausch, D. (2008) Strategic Directions in Seismic Modeling: HAZUS® Development and Current Applications for Catastrophe Planning. Risk Assessment, Modeling and Decision Support: Strategic Directions Risk, Governance and Society. (ed. by A. Bostrom), S. French), and S. Gottlieb), pp. 101–116. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Ecology and Biogeography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Epigenome of 111 Cell and Tissue Types Mapped By Researchers. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Information Technology: HUD Needs to Strengthen Its Capacity to Manage and Modernize Its Environment, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Day, K.C. (2017) CPA Perceptions of Human Skills for Professional Competency Development Needs.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., Alter, A. & Chan, S. (2016) Bob Dylan Wins Nobel Prize, Redefining the Boundaries of Literature. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Meselson & Mark Welch, 2007; Eisenstein, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meselson & Mark Welch, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Becker et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
AbbreviationGlob. Ecol. Biogeogr.
ISSN (print)1466-822X
ISSN (online)1466-8238
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles