How to format your references using the Global Ecology and Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Ecology and Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cartwright, J. (2001) Stranger than fiction. Nature, 412, 683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freed, A.M. & Bürgmann, R. (2004) Evidence of power-law flow in the Mojave desert mantle. Nature, 430, 548–551.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ganguly-Fitzgerald, I., Donlea, J. & Shaw, P.J. (2006) Waking experience affects sleep need in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313, 1775–1781.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stuart, F.M., Lass-Evans, S., Fitton, J.G. & Ellam, R.M. (2003) High 3He/4He ratios in picritic basalts from Baffin Island and the role of a mixed reservoir in mantle plumes. Nature, 424, 57–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wuestenberg, K. (2012) Clinical Small Animal Care, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, Iowa, USA.
An edited book
Clauss, M. & Breier, G. eds. (2005) Mechanisms of Angiogenesis, Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Vashchenko, V. & Scholz, M. (2014) IC and System ESD Co-design. System Level ESD Protection (ed. by M. Scholz), pp. 247–309. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Ecology and Biogeography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Dawn Breaks Over Distant Ceres … And Perhaps Reveals Signs Of Habitability. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Auto Safety: Status of NHTSA’s Redesign of Its Crashworthiness Data System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Phelps-Hillen, J.L. (2017) Institutional Review Boards and Writing Studies Research: A Justice-Oriented Study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Erlanger, S. (2017) For Wary World, True Trump Aims Remain Unknown. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cartwright, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Cartwright, 2001; Freed & Bürgmann, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freed & Bürgmann, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Stuart et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
AbbreviationGlob. Ecol. Biogeogr.
ISSN (print)1466-822X
ISSN (online)1466-8238
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Global and Planetary Change

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