How to format your references using the Global Ecology and Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Ecology and Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holt, T. (2000) Subpoenaed in Syracuse. Nature, 407, 841.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watrin, E. & Peters, J.-M. (2007) Molecular biology. How and when the genome sticks together. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317, 209–210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robinson, J.W.A., Witt, J.D.S. & Blamire, M.G. (2010) Controlled injection of spin-triplet supercurrents into a strong ferromagnet. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329, 59–61.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D’Anna, G., Mayor, P., Barrat, A., Loreto, V. & Nori, F. (2003) Observing brownian motion in vibration-fluidized granular matter. Nature, 424, 909–912.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schütz, H., Wiedemann, P.M., Hennings, W., Mertens, J. & Clauberg, M. (2006) Comparative Risk Assessment, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Tymieniecka, A.-T. ed. (2011) Destiny, the Inward Quest, Temporality and Life, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Graves, I., Procter, A., Harrison, W.L., Becchi, M. & Allwein, G. (2015) Hardware Synthesis from Functional Embedded Domain-Specific Languages: A Case Study in Regular Expression Compilation. Applied Reconfigurable Computing: 11th International Symposium, ARC 2015, Bochum, Germany, April 13-17, 2015, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (ed. by K. Sano), D. Soudris), M. Hübner), and P.C. Diniz), pp. 41–52. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Ecology and Biogeography.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016) Heart Attack Deaths More Likely At Christmas. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Air Quality Planning Processes at Selected Airports, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karch, K. (2014) An investigation of perceptions about smart mobile phone usage as an instructional tool in a high school classroom.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007) Property Damage but No Injuries in Tornado. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holt, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Holt, 2000; Watrin & Peters, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watrin & Peters, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (D’Anna et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
AbbreviationGlob. Ecol. Biogeogr.
ISSN (print)1466-822X
ISSN (online)1466-8238
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Global and Planetary Change

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