How to format your references using the Global Ecology and Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Ecology and Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Michel-Kerjan, E. (2014) How terror-proof is your economy? Nature, 514, 275.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ito, T. & Handa, H. (2015) Myeloid disease: Another action of a thalidomide derivative. Nature, 523, 167–168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reece, S.E., Drew, D.R. & Gardner, A. (2008) Sex ratio adjustment and kin discrimination in malaria parasites. Nature, 453, 609–614.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, Y.T., Zhang, B., Zheng, S.J., Wang, J., San, X.Y. & Ma, X.L. (2014) Atomic-scale decoration for improving the pitting corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels. Scientific reports, 4, 3604.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazer, A. (2011) Shifting the Earth, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Anazawa, H. & Shimizu, S. eds. (2014) Microbial Production: From Genome Design to Cell Engineering, Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Münstedt, H. & Schwarzl, F.R. (2014) Linear Viscoelastic Deformation Behavior in Simple Shear. Deformation and Flow of Polymeric Materials (ed. by F.R. Schwarzl), pp. 121–187. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Ecology and Biogeography.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017) 7 Myths About Psychedelic Drugs Like LSD That Are Doing More Harm Than Good. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Maritime Transportation: Implications of Using U.S. Liquefied-Natural-Gas Carriers for Exports, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reese, N.E. (2015) The Ecomorphology of White-tailed Deer Lower Limb Bones Through the Holocene in Central North America.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017) Kendrick Lamar At No. 1 for 2nd Week. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Michel-Kerjan, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Michel-Kerjan, 2014; Ito & Handa, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ito & Handa, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
AbbreviationGlob. Ecol. Biogeogr.
ISSN (print)1466-822X
ISSN (online)1466-8238
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles