How to format your references using the Global Ecology and Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Ecology and Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clapham, D.E. (2015) Structural biology: Pain-sensing TRPA1 channel resolved. Nature, 520, 439–441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Honma, T. & Goto, K. (2001) Complexes of MADS-box proteins are sufficient to convert leaves into floral organs. Nature, 409, 525–529.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bertotti, B., Iess, L. & Tortora, P. (2003) A test of general relativity using radio links with the Cassini spacecraft. Nature, 425, 374–376.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith, G.C.S., Stenhouse, E.J., Crossley, J.A., Aitken, D.A., Cameron, A.D. & Connor, J.M. (2002) Early-pregnancy origins of low birth weight. Nature, 417, 916.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle, M. (2016) Ionic and Electrochemical Equilibria, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Elmakias, D. ed. (2008) New Computational Methods in Power System Reliability, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferrara, A. & Scarpone, D. (2014) The Special Regions and the Autonomous Provinces. Italian Regionalism: Between Unitary Traditions and Federal Processes: Investigating Italy’s Form of State (ed. by S. Mangiameli), pp. 111–135. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Ecology and Biogeography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Artificial Tweezers Block HIV, Herpes And Hepatitis C. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974) Administration of the Medicaid Drug Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Santella Steen, S. (2017) The Potential of Television Programming as a Resource to Facilitate Academic Progress for Students who have a Specific Learning Disability in Reading.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2016) ‘Today’ Host Discussing NBC Exit After Lewd Tape. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clapham, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Honma & Goto, 2001; Clapham, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Honma & Goto, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
AbbreviationGlob. Ecol. Biogeogr.
ISSN (print)1466-822X
ISSN (online)1466-8238
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles