How to format your references using the Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Seife C. ASTRONOMY: Brown Dwarf’s Flare Opens X-ray Eyes. Science. 2000;289:373a–4a.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shen Y, Lua AC. A facile method for the large-scale continuous synthesis of graphene sheets using a novel catalyst. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3037.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Barta A, Dorner S, Polacek N. Mechanism of ribosomal peptide bond formation. Science. 2001;291:203.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Abbondanzieri EA, Greenleaf WJ, Shaevitz JW, Landick R, Block SM. Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase. Nature. 2005;438:460–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Korst J, Pronk V. Multimedia Storage and Retrieval. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Fouquet Y, Lacroix D, editors. Deep Marine Mineral Resources. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. ElKady SK, Abdelsalam HM. A Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving Capacitated Maximal Covering Location Problem in Healthcare Systems. In: Hassanien A-E, Grosan C, Fahmy Tolba M, editors. Applications of Intelligent Optimization in Biology and Medicine: Current Trends and Open Problems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 117–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. The Story Of The Dinosaurs Is About To Get A Major Rewrite. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA: Interest Earned on Letter of Credit Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Aug. Report No.: NSIAD-97-241R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Brown JR. Trajectories of parents’ experiences in discovering, reporting, and living with the aftermath of middle school bullying [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rosenberg E. Louise Rennison, 64, Young-Adult Author. New York Times. 2016 Mar 5;D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOrphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
AbbreviationOrphanet J. Rare Dis.
ISSN (online)1750-1172
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

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