How to format your references using the BMC Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bakalar N. Sensory science: partners in flavour. Nature. 2012;486:S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Singleton AB, Traynor BJ. Genetics. For complex disease genetics, collaboration drives progress. Science. 2015;347:1422–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Padian K, de Ricqlès AJ, Horner JR. Dinosaurian growth rates and bird origins. Nature. 2001;412:405–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Montelli R, Nolet G, Dahlen FA, Masters G, Engdahl ER, Hung S-H. Finite-frequency tomography reveals a variety of plumes in the mantle. Science. 2004;303:338–43.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Le Doeuff R, Zaïm MEH. Rotating Electrical Machines. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Huang D-S, Li K, Irwin GW, editors. Computational Intelligence: International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2006, Kunming, China, August 16-19, 2006. Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cerqueira E, Veloso L, Neto A, Curado M, Mendes P, Monteiro E. Q3M – QoS Architecture for Multi-user Mobile Multimedia Sessions in 4G systems. In: Krishnaswamy D, Pfeifer T, Raz D, editors. Real-Time Mobile Multimedia Services: 10th IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Management of Multimedia and Mobile Networks and Services, MMNS 2007, San José, USA, October 31 - November 2, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 38–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Zoology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. How Computers are Learning to Make Human Software Work More Efficiently. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/how-computers-are-learning-make-human-software-work-more-efficiently/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities in, and Alternatives for, Preboard Screening Security Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Abedin G. Exploring the potential of art-based education for adolescents with learning disabilities: A case study of engagement in learning through the arts. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. Muni Bonds Not as Safe As Thought. New York Times. 2012;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Zoology
AbbreviationBMC Zool.
ISSN (online)2056-3132
Scope

Other styles