How to format your references using the BMC Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Melcher D. Persistence of visual memory for scenes. Nature. 2001;412:401.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Smith AE, Helenius A. How viruses enter animal cells. Science. 2004;304:237–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Melchor RN, De Valais S, Genise JF. Bird-like fossil footprints from the Late Triassic. Nature. 2002;417:936–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Su S-H, Xu W, Hai J, Wu Y-F, Yu F. Effects of statins-use for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Anwar S, Carroll JJ. Carbon Dioxide Thermodynamic Properties Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Vallecillo A, Gray J, Pierantonio A, editors. Theory and Practice of Model Transformations: First International Conference, ICMT 2008, Zürich, Switzerland, July 1-2, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sommestad T, Hallberg J. Cyber Security Exercises and Competitions as a Platform for Cyber Security Experiments. In: Jøsang A, Carlsson B, editors. Secure IT Systems: 17th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2012, Karlskrona, Sweden, October 31 – November 2, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Zoology.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Rampaging Elephant Smashes House, Then Rescues Crying Baby. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/rampaging-elephant-smashes-house-then-rescues-crying-baby/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Continued Improvements in Investment Oversight and Management Can Yield Billions in Savings. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Satam GC. The mechanical engineering approach for three dimensional modeling procedure and measurements of the heart anatomy. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. Insult My Mom, Please. New York Times. 1992;:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Zoology
AbbreviationBMC Zool.
ISSN (online)2056-3132
Scope

Other styles