How to format your references using the BMC Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Clack JA. Paleontology. From fins to fingers. Science. 2004;304:57–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Saha K, Hurlbut JB. Research ethics: Treat donors as partners in biobank research. Nature. 2011;478:312–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pepe F, Ehrenreich D, Meyer MR. Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. Nature. 2014;513:358–66.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nakayama Y, Pauzauskie PJ, Radenovic A, Onorato RM, Saykally RJ, Liphardt J, et al. Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe. Nature. 2007;447:1098–101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Levin MA, Kalal TT. Improving Product Reliability. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Neri E. Il Dentascan. Milano: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dabrowska C, Li M, Fan Y. Apoptotic Caspases in Promoting Cancer: Implications from Their Roles in Development and Tissue Homeostasis. In: Gregory CD, editor. Apoptosis in Cancer Pathogenesis and Anti-cancer Therapy: New Perspectives and Opportunities. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 89–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Zoology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Want More Girls To Be Interested In Computer Science? Change Some Classroom Stereotypes. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/want-more-girls-be-interested-computer-science-change-some-classroom-stereotypes/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Cloud Computing: Agencies Need to Incorporate Key Practices to Ensure Effective Performance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Helgoe CA. The impact of federal policy on teachers’ use of science manipulatives: A survey of teacher philosophy and practices. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Court Weighs Rights of Passengers When Police Stop Cars. New York Times. 2007;:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Zoology
AbbreviationBMC Zool.
ISSN (online)2056-3132
Scope

Other styles