How to format your references using the Oral Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oral Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Paulsson J. Summing up the noise in gene networks. Nature. 2004;427:415–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Buyx A, Tait J. Ethics. Ethical framework for biofuels. Science. 2011;332:540–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Anderson PW, Brinkman WF, Huse DA. Thermodynamics of an incommensurate quantum crystal. Science. 2005;310:1164–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mannini M, Pineider F, Danieli C, Totti F, Sorace L, Sainctavit P, et al. Quantum tunnelling of the magnetization in a monolayer of oriented single-molecule magnets. Nature. 2010;468:417–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Glover F, Klingman D, Phillips NV. Network Models in Optimization and their Applications in Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1992.
An edited book
1. Mishra RK, Srinivasan N, Huettig F, editors. Attention and Vision in Language Processing. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hou C, Chang S, Lin J, Song D. Pedicled Perforator Flaps. In: Chang S, Lin J, Song D, editors. Surgical Atlas of Perforator Flaps: A Microsurgical Dissection Technique. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 15–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oral Radiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Doctors in India Remove 232 Teeth From Mouth Of Teenage Boy [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Leasing Office Space: FAA’s Denver Solicitation May Have Unduly Restricted Competition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Jun. Report No.: GGD-88-72BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Restrepo E. Eventalizing blackness in Colombia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J, Maheshwari S. Eyes Drift. Marketers Stick to TV. New York Times. 2017 May 14;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOral Radiology
AbbreviationOral Radiol.
ISSN (print)0911-6028
ISSN (online)1613-9674
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Dentistry (miscellaneous)

Other styles