How to format your references using the Oral Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oral Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Showalter MR. Planetary science. Saturn’s strangest ring becomes curiouser and curiouser. Science. 2005;310:1287–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bae B-I, Walsh CA. Neuroscience. What are mini-brains? Science. 2013;342:200–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rowe T, McBride EF, Sereno PC. Dinosaur with a heart of stone. Science. 2001;291:783.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lenski RE, Ofria C, Pennock RT, Adami C. The evolutionary origin of complex features. Nature. 2003;423:139–44.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wesche R. Physical Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Sirdeshmukh DB. Micro- and Macro-Properties of Solids: Thermal, Mechanical and Dielectric Properties. Sirdeshmukh L, Subhadra KG, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bernsen NO, Dybkjær L. Modalities and Devices. In: Dybkjær L, editor. Multimodal Usability. London: Springer; 2010. p. 67–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oral Radiology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Neil deGrasse Tyson To Host Late-Night Talk Show [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FAA Computer Security: Concerns Remain Due to Personnel and Other Continuing Weaknesses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Aug. Report No.: AIMD-00-252.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Beasley CA. Investigations of redox-labeled silica and gold nanoparticles in solution and as films on electrodes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. Keeping the Dream Kickin’. New York Times. 2017 May 9;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOral Radiology
AbbreviationOral Radiol.
ISSN (print)0911-6028
ISSN (online)1613-9674
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Dentistry (miscellaneous)

Other styles