How to format your references using the Oral Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oral Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Harris H. Tumour suppression: putting on the brakes. Nature. 2004;427:201.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Collini E, Scholes GD. Coherent intrachain energy migration in a conjugated polymer at room temperature. Science. 2009;323:369–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Angelakis DG, Das P, Noh C. Probing the topological properties of the Jackiw-Rebbi model with light. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6110.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wu Z, Sun X, Sullivan SG, Detels R. Public health. HIV testing in China. Science. 2006;312:1475–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lalanne C. Specification Development. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Dauphinee S, Karsan A, editors. Endothelial Dysfunction and Inflammation. Basel: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mizumura K, Murase S. Role of Nerve Growth Factor in Pain. In: Schaible H-G, editor. Pain Control. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 57–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oral Radiology.

Blog post
1. Evans K. Do Superheroes Make Children More Aggressive Rather Than Heroic? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airline Labor Relations: Information on Trends and Impact of Labor Actions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Jun. Report No.: GAO-03-652.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bernal E. Ethnographic research of emergent cultural themes from technology-based informal education in a museum [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cooper M. Michael Tilson Thomas To Step Down in 2020. New York Times. 2017 Oct 31;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOral Radiology
AbbreviationOral Radiol.
ISSN (print)0911-6028
ISSN (online)1613-9674
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Dentistry (miscellaneous)

Other styles