How to format your references using the Oral Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oral Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Tobias PV. Paleoanthropology. Encore Olduvai. Science. 2003;299:1193–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bergstrom CT, Kerr B. Microbiology: Taking the bad with the good. Nature. 2015;521:431–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fuerstman MJ, Garstecki P, Whitesides GM. Coding/decoding and reversibility of droplet trains in microfluidic networks. Science. 2007;315:828–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kato Y, Myers RC, Gossard AC, Awschalom DD. Coherent spin manipulation without magnetic fields in strained semiconductors. Nature. 2004;427:50–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Potter L. The Life of William Shakespeare. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Itakura S, Fujita K, editors. Origins of the Social Mind: Evolutionary and Developmental Views. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Takase M, Sano T, Fukuda K, Chugo A. Distributed Cache Management for Context-Aware Services in Large-Scale Networks. In: Ata S, Hong CS, editors. Managing Next Generation Networks and Services: 10th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium, APNOMS 2007, Sapporo, Japan, October 10-12, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oral Radiology.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. New Study Suggests We’re Approaching The “Big Crunch” [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School Meal Programs: Changes to Federal Agencies’ Procedures Could Reduce Risk of School Children Consuming Recalled Food. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Aug. Report No.: GAO-09-649.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ganatra VA. Impact of the media on body image and eating disorders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Poniewozik J. Can’t Quit Mother Russia. New York Times. 2017 Mar 6;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOral Radiology
AbbreviationOral Radiol.
ISSN (print)0911-6028
ISSN (online)1613-9674
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Dentistry (miscellaneous)

Other styles