How to format your references using the Metabolic Engineering Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Engineering Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, A., 2002. Screening for drug discovery: the leading question. Nature 418, 453–459.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koos, E., Willenbacher, N., 2011. Capillary forces in suspension rheology. Science 331, 897–900.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schroder, K., Zhou, R., Tschopp, J., 2010. The NLRP3 inflammasome: a sensor for metabolic danger? Science 327, 296–300.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, J.-S., Kim, J., Park, S., Jeon, J., Shin, Y.-E., Kim, S., 2013. Spatial and functional organization of mitochondrial protein network. Sci. Rep. 3, 1403.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 1995. Guidelines for Technical Planning for on-site Emergencies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vincent, J.-L. (Ed.), 2010. Intensive Care Medicine. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Beer, M.D., Alboul, L., Norling, E., Wallis, P., 2013. Using Agents in Virtual Environments to Assist Controllers to Manage Multiple Assets, in: Dignum, F., Brom, C., Hindriks, K., Beer, M., Richards, D. (Eds.), Cognitive Agents for Virtual Environments: First International Workshop, CAVE 2012, Held at AAMAS 2012, Valencia, Spain, June 4, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Engineering Communications.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2016. It Seriously Sucks To Be A Reindeer Right Now [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Small Business: Proposed Amendments to the Small Business Innovation Research Program (No. RCED-89-173). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duncan, K.F., 2016. Middle school teachers’ self-perceptions of response to intervention (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2017. NBC Rolls Back Promised ‘Must See TV’ Revival. New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Koos and Willenbacher, 2011; Smith, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koos and Willenbacher, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Engineering Communications
AbbreviationMetab. Eng. Commun.
ISSN (print)2214-0301

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