How to format your references using the Metabolic Engineering Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Engineering Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dunlop, J.S., 2011. The cosmic history of star formation. Science 333, 178–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, T.T., Palese, P., 2011. Biochemistry. Catching a moving target. Science 333, 834–835.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunn, F.A., Lankheet, M.J., Rieke, F., 2007. Light adaptation in cone vision involves switching between receptor and post-receptor sites. Nature 449, 603–606.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, J.F., Huang, Y.F., Ding, Y., Yang, Z.L., Li, S.B., Zhou, X.S., Fan, F.R., Zhang, W., Zhou, Z.Y., Wu, D.Y., Ren, B., Wang, Z.L., Tian, Z.Q., 2010. Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Nature 464, 392–395.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Provost, J.J., Colabroy, K.L., Kelly, B.S., Wallert, M.A., 2016. The Science of Cooking. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Yu, L.X., Li, B.V. (Eds.), 2014. FDA Bioequivalence Standards, AAPS Advances in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Series. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, W., 2012. FSK Modulation and Demodulation Analysis Based on Matlab, in: Qu, X., Yang, Y. (Eds.), Information and Business Intelligence: International Conference, IBI 2011, Chongqing, China, December 23-25, 2011. Proceedings, Part I, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 26–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Engineering Communications.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Could The Big Bang Actually Be A Big Bounce? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Comments on H.R. 7689 (No. B-200171). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lieberman, D.S., 2017. “Stroke Your Thoroughbreds and Kick Your Donkeys”: Power and the Secondary Administrative Distribution of Teaching Assignments (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2006. Southampton Buys A Girl Scout Camp. New York Times 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dunlop, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Dunlop, 2011; Wang and Palese, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Palese, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Engineering Communications
AbbreviationMetab. Eng. Commun.
ISSN (print)2214-0301

Other styles