How to format your references using the Metabolic Engineering Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Engineering Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myers, M.G., Jr, 2009. Cell biology. Moonlighting in mitochondria. Science 323, 723–724.
A journal article with 2 authors
Engwerda, C.R., Good, M.F., 2012. Immunology. Platelets kill the parasite within. Science 338, 1304–1305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suma, K., Sumiyoshi, Y., Endo, Y., 2006. The rotational spectrum of the water-hydroperoxy radical (H2O-HO2) complex. Science 311, 1278–1281.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Buckling, A., Kassen, R., Bell, G., Rainey, P.B., 2000. Disturbance and diversity in experimental microcosms. Nature 408, 961–964.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eklund, C., Marks, R.B., Ponnuswamy, S., Stanwood, K.L., van Waes, N.J.M., 2011. WirelessMAN®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Das, P., 2015. Optimal Covariate Designs: Theory and Applications, 1st ed. 2015. ed. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Yeo, K.K., Laird, J.R., 2012. Subclavian and Upper Extremity Interventions, in: Bhatt, D.L. (Ed.), Peripheral and Cerebrovascular Intervention. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 99–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Engineering Communications.

Blog post
Carpineti, C., 2017. Check Out The Totally Incredible Moment A Whale Shark Swam Past Divers [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Grant Programs: Design Features Shape Flexibility, Accountability, and Performance Information (No. GGD-98-137). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, N.C., 2010. The association between rheumatoid arthritis, bone strength, and body composition within the women’s health initiative (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pastan, L., 2015. The Bridge. New York Times MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Myers, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Engwerda and Good, 2012; Myers, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Engwerda and Good, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Buckling et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Engineering Communications
AbbreviationMetab. Eng. Commun.
ISSN (print)2214-0301

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