How to format your references using the Metabolic Engineering Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Engineering Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Halliwell, B., 2003. Plasma antioxidants: health benefits of eating chocolate? Nature 426, 787; discussion 788.
A journal article with 2 authors
Titantah, J.T., Karttunen, M., 2013. Water dynamics: relation between hydrogen bond bifurcations, molecular jumps, local density & hydrophobicity. Sci. Rep. 3, 2991.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, J., Sato, T., Kageyama, A., 2002. Repeated and sudden reversals of the dipole field generated by a spherical dynamo action. Science 295, 1887–1890.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Garcia-Viloca, M., Gao, J., Karplus, M., Truhlar, D.G., 2004. How enzymes work: analysis by modern rate theory and computer simulations. Science 303, 186–195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, C., 2010. Fibonacci Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kallenborn, R. (Ed.), 2016. Implications and Consequences of Anthropogenic Pollution in Polar Environments, From Pole to Pole. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
McCune, W., 2006. Semantic Guidance for Saturation Provers, in: Calmet, J., Ida, T., Wang, D. (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence and Symbolic Computation: 8th International Conference, AISC 2006 Beijing, China, September 20-22, 2006 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 18–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Engineering Communications.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Is The Universe A Hologram? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Social Security: Telephone Busy Signal Rates at Local SSA Field Offices (No. HRD-93-49). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gamez, T.E., 2012. Preventing child maltreatment among children with non-resident fathers: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2009. Baked by Hand, With Heart. New York Times NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Halliwell, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Halliwell, 2003; Titantah and Karttunen, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Titantah and Karttunen, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Garcia-Viloca et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Engineering Communications
AbbreviationMetab. Eng. Commun.
ISSN (print)2214-0301

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