How to format your references using the The Journal of Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kupferschmidt K. Global health. Report prescribes strong medicine for WHO. Science 2015;349(6245):223–224.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Parren PWHI, Burton DR. Immunology. Two-in-one designer antibodies. Science 2009;323(5921):1567–1568.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lemos B, Araripe LO, Hartl DL. Polymorphic Y chromosomes harbor cryptic variation with manifold functional consequences. Science 2008;319(5859):91–93.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
1. Brotherton CA et al. NextGen VOICES: A postdoc’s purpose. Science 2018;360(6384):26–27.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kissell J. Mac® Security Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2009:
An edited book
1. Trecca A (ed). Ileoscopy: Technique, Diagnosis, and Clinical Applications. Milano: Springer; 2012:
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chumningan S, Pornputtapong N, Laoteng K, Cheevadhanarak S, Thammarongtham C. 3D Structure Modeling of a Transmembrane Protein, Fatty Acid Elongase. In: Chan JH, Ong Y-S, Cho S-B eds. Computational Systems-Biology and Bioinformatics: First International Conference, CSBio 2010, Bangkok, Thailand, November 3-5, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010:36–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
1. Fang J. New Tiniest Snail Smashes Month-Old World Record [Internet]. IFLScience 2015; cited October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information on the New Community of Soul City, North Carolina. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975:

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pelayo AY. A program to increase health literacy for older Latino adults residing in La Habra, California: A grant proposal2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hagerdon MLK. The Triangle. New York Times 2016;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Clinical Investigation
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Invest.
ISSN (print)0021-9738
ISSN (online)1558-8238
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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