How to format your references using the The Journal of Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kerr RA. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Beating Up on a Young Earth, and Possibly Life. Science 2000;290(5497):1677.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rothschild LJ, Mancinelli RL. Life in extreme environments. Nature 2001;409(6823):1092–1101.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Cattadori IM, Haydon DT, Hudson PJ. Parasites and climate synchronize red grouse populations. Nature 2005;433(7027):737–741.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
1. Marshall NM et al. Rationally tuning the reduction potential of a single cupredoxin beyond the natural range. Nature 2009;462(7269):113–116.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Mory M. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineering. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013:
An edited book
1. Lansiquot RD (ed). Technology, Theory, and Practice in Interdisciplinary STEM Programs: Connecting STEM and Non-STEM Approaches. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016:
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ramachandran S. Benevolent Funds: Philanthropic Practices of the South African Diaspora in Ontario, Canada. In: Chikanda A, Crush J, Walton-Roberts M eds. Diasporas, Development and Governance. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:65–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
1. Carpineti C. 2 Billion People Are Drinking Water Contaminated With Fecal Matter [Internet]. IFLScience 2017; cited October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Assessment of FAA’s Efforts to Augment the Global Positioning System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995:

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bennett AL. An Empirical Longitudinal Analysis of Agile Methodologies and Firm Financial Performance2019;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Goldberg S. The town where mercury still rises. New York Times 2017;0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Clinical Investigation
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Invest.
ISSN (print)0021-9738
ISSN (online)1558-8238
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles