How to format your references using the Ampersand citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ampersand. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Savage, Algae: The scum solution, Nature. 474 (2011) S15-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.S. Zens, C.O. Webb, Ecology. Sizing up the shape of life, Science. 295 (2002) 1475–1476.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.H. Morais-Cabral, Y. Zhou, R. MacKinnon, Energetic optimization of ion conduction rate by the K+ selectivity filter, Nature. 414 (2001) 37–42.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Spitzer, B. Risse, F. Schnell, V. Pichot, M. Klaumünzer, M.R. Schaefer, Continuous engineering of nano-cocrystals for medical and energetic applications, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6575.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.N. Mindham, Roof Construction and Loft Conversion, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
A. Erol, ed., Dilute III-V Nitride Semiconductors and Material Systems: Physics and Technology, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
D.A. Simovici, C. Djeraba, Topologies and Measures, in: C. Djeraba (Ed.), Mathematical Tools for Data Mining: Set Theory, Partial Orders, Combinatorics, Springer, London, 2014: pp. 149–195.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ampersand.

Blog post
T. Hale, AI Can Predict How Much Longer You Have Left To Live, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. III, No. 9, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.L. Reimer, Grant proposal: Support services for families of children diagnosed with autism, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
P.R. Verkuil, The Case for Bureaucracy, New York Times. (2016) A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmpersand
AbbreviationAmpersand (Oxford)
ISSN (print)2215-0390

Other styles