How to format your references using the Ampersand citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ampersand. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.T. Abraham, Cell biology. Making sense of amino acid sensing, Science. 347 (2015) 128–129.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.A. Seibel, H.M. Dierssen, Ocean science. Animal function at the heart (and gut) of oceanography, Science. 323 (2009) 343–344.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.S.M. Peiris, L.L.M. Poon, Y. Guan, Public health. Surveillance of animal influenza for pandemic preparedness, Science. 335 (2012) 1173–1174.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Ormö, E. Sturkell, C. Alwmark, J. Melosh, First known terrestrial impact of a binary asteroid from a main belt breakup event, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Tao, L. Zhang, Y. Hu, Resource Service Management in Manufacturing Grid System, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
H. Bunt, R. Muskens, eds., Computing Meaning, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Ščančar, E. Heath, T. Zuliani, M. Horvat, J. Kotnik, S. Perko, R. Milačič, Elements and Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Sediments of the Sava River, in: R. Milačič, J. Ščančar, M. Paunović (Eds.), The Sava River, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 95–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ampersand.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Hitchhiking Robot Treks Across Canada, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Project SAFECOM: Key Cross-Agency Emergency Communications Effort Requires Stronger Collaboration, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.S. Downey, Resilient networks and and the historical ecology of Q’eqchi’ Maya swidden agriculture, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Abortion Opponents Win Dispute, New York Times. (2006) A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmpersand
AbbreviationAmpersand (Oxford)
ISSN (print)2215-0390

Other styles