How to format your references using the Ampersand citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ampersand. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Knight, Meeting aims to find brain’s benchmarks for beauty, Nature. 421 (2003) 305.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Nachev, M. Husain, Comment on “Detecting awareness in the vegetative state,” Science. 315 (2007) 1221; author reply 1221.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.L. Sinsabaugh, B.H. Hill, J.J. Follstad Shah, Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry of microbial organic nutrient acquisition in soil and sediment, Nature. 462 (2009) 795–798.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Chow, D. Toomre, W. Garrett, I. Mellman, Dendritic cell maturation triggers retrograde MHC class II transport from lysosomes to the plasma membrane, Nature. 418 (2002) 988–994.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Matthews, A Practical Guide to Engineering Failure Investigation, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 1998.
An edited book
W. Huang, L. Alem, M.A. Livingston, eds., Human Factors in Augmented Reality Environments, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Tesorio, Le protesi valvolari, in: M. Sheppard, J. Pepper, M. Rigby (Eds.), Ecocardiografia Clinica, Springer, Milano, 2006: pp. 89–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ampersand.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Ancient Texts To Be Sent To The Moon, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: HUD Needs to Address Significant Weaknesses in Its Cost Estimating Practices, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.R. Liang, A Risk Analysis of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain Using Bayesian Networks, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J. de la MERCED, O. Strand, Nestlé Goes High End, Buying Blue Bottle Coffee, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmpersand
AbbreviationAmpersand (Oxford)
ISSN (print)2215-0390

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