How to format your references using the Opto-Electronics Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Opto-Electronics Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Adam, Fatal rocket accident puts question mark over Soyuz’s safety, Nature. 419 (2002) 766.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.M. Ransohoff, B. Stevens, Neuroscience. How many cell types does it take to wire a brain?, Science. 333 (2011) 1391–1392.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.J. Hornbach, D.M. Saffer, W.S. Holbrook, Critically pressured free-gas reservoirs below gas-hydrate provinces, Nature. 427 (2004) 142–144.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Dong, D.D. Yang, C. Tournier, A.J. Whitmarsh, J. Xu, R.J. Davis, R.A. Flavell, JNK is required for effector T-cell function but not for T-cell activation, Nature. 405 (2000) 91–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Vanclef, The Wealth Code 2.0, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
J. Hescheler, E. Hofer, eds., Adult and Pluripotent Stem Cells: Potential for Regenerative Medicine of the Cardiovascular System, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
L.M. Fishman, A.N. Wilkins, Treating Neurological Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Identified by a Provoked Electromyographic Sign: Analysis of the Data, in: A.N. Wilkins (Ed.), Functional Electromyography: Provocative Maneuvers in Electrodiagnosis, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2011: pp. 65–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Opto-Electronics Review.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Bigfoot, The Kraken And Night Parrots: Searching For The Mythical Or Mysterious, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Teacher Quality: Sustained Coordination among Key Federal Education Programs Could Enhance State Efforts to Improve Teacher Quality, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.C. Beeler, Disordered Ultracold Two-Dimensional Bose Gases, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.D. Shear, B. Plumer, Trump Has Choice to Make Between Science and His Base, New York Times. (2017) A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOpto-Electronics Review
ISSN (print)1230-3402

Other styles