How to format your references using the Opto-Electronics Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Opto-Electronics Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Palmer, Atmospheric science. Record-breaking winters and global climate change, Science. 344 (2014) 803–804.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Angelo, M.R. Van Gilst, Starvation protects germline stem cells and extends reproductive longevity in C. elegans, Science. 326 (2009) 954–958.
A journal article with 3 authors
G.M. Gratson, M. Xu, J.A. Lewis, Microperiodic structures: direct writing of three-dimensional webs, Nature. 428 (2004) 386.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Song, J. Altarejos, M.O. Goodarzi, H. Inoue, X. Guo, R. Berdeaux, J.-H. Kim, J. Goode, M. Igata, J.C. Paz, M.F. Hogan, P.K. Singh, N. Goebel, L. Vera, N. Miller, J. Cui, M.R. Jones, CHARGE Consortium, GIANT Consortium, Y.-D.I. Chen, K.D. Taylor, W.A. Hsueh, J.I. Rotter, M. Montminy, CRTC3 links catecholamine signalling to energy balance, Nature. 468 (2010) 933–939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Lu, Arithmetic and Logic in Computer Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
P. Abrahamsson, N. Oza, eds., Lean Enterprise Software and Systems: First International Conference, LESS 2010, Helsinki, Finland, October 17-20, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
N.V. Bykova, A.U. Igamberdiev, Redox State in Plant Mitochondria and its Role in Stress Tolerance, in: D.K. Gupta, J.M. Palma, F.J. Corpas (Eds.), Redox State as a Central Regulator of Plant-Cell Stress Responses, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 93–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Opto-Electronics Review.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists Make Headway Toward Invisibility Cloaking, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: TSA Is Enhancing Its Oversight of Air Carrier Efforts to Identify Passengers on the No Fly and Selectee Lists, but Expects Ultimate Solution to Be Implementation of Secure Flight, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.H. Piper, A Study of the Effectiveness of Alternative Schools through an Examination of Graduation Rates, School Climate, Student Motivation, and Academic Rigor, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E.A. Harris, S. Greenhouse, Road to the Showdown at American Apparel, New York Times. (2014) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOpto-Electronics Review
ISSN (print)1230-3402

Other styles