How to format your references using the Cognitive Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen A (2015) Three technologies that changed genetics. Nature 528:S2-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Convey P, Stevens MI (2007) Ecology. Antarctic biodiversity. Science 317:1877–1878
A journal article with 3 authors
Gorb EV, Baum MJ, Gorb SN (2013) Development and regeneration ability of the wax coverage in Nepenthes alata pitchers: a cryo-SEM approach. Sci Rep 3:3078
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Javey A, Guo J, Wang Q, et al (2003) Ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. Nature 424:654–657

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGuiggan P (2005) GPRS in Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Thomas S, Visakh PM, Mathew AP (eds) (2013) Advances in Natural Polymers: Composites and Nanocomposites. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Grzejszczyk E (2015) Control of Coordinated Systems Traffic Lights. Cloud Computing Technology. In: Mikulski J (ed) Tools of Transport Telematics: 15th International Conference on Transport Systems Telematics, TST 2015, Wrocław, Poland, April 15-17, 2015. Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Processing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Horizons Brings Pluto’s Mysterious Moons Into Sharper Focus. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Space Station: Actions Under Way to Manage Cost, but Significant Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Becker M (2017) Women’s Descriptions Six Months Post Notification of Positive BRCA 1/2 Genetic Mutations. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robbins L, Rodriguez NT (2017) Gang Murders in the Suburbs. New York Times MB1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Convey and Stevens 2007; Maxmen 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Convey and Stevens 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Javey et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Processing
AbbreviationCogn. Process.
ISSN (print)1612-4782
ISSN (online)1612-4790
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
General Medicine
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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