How to format your references using the Cognitive Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anderson E (2004) Scientists and societies. An introduction to biotechnology. Nature 428:350
A journal article with 2 authors
Brooks T, Smith ML (2001) Ecology. Caribbean catastrophes. Science 294:1469–1471
A journal article with 3 authors
Acevedo A, Brodsky L, Andino R (2014) Mutational and fitness landscapes of an RNA virus revealed through population sequencing. Nature 505:686–690
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zacharias DA, Violin JD, Newton AC, Tsien RY (2002) Partitioning of lipid-modified monomeric GFPs into membrane microdomains of live cells. Science 296:913–916

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carrega P (2010) Geographical Information and Climatology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Podesser BK, Chambers DJ (eds) (2011) New Solutions for the Heart: An Update in Advanced Perioperative Protection. Springer, Vienna
A chapter in an edited book
Rivenbark AG, Coleman WB (2009) The Role of Mutation and Epimutation in the Development of Human Disease. In: Allen TC, Cagle PT (eds) Basic Concepts of Molecular Pathology. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 41–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Processing.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Most of Africa May Lose Half Their Lions in 20 Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Social Security Student Benefits for Postsecondary Students Should Be Discontinued. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lovejoy LP (2010) On the control of selective attention in the primate superior colliculus. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J (2016) Painting Brooklyn, Without a Brush. New York Times MB8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anderson 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Brooks and Smith 2001; Anderson 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brooks and Smith 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Zacharias et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Processing
AbbreviationCogn. Process.
ISSN (print)1612-4782
ISSN (online)1612-4790
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
General Medicine
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Other styles