How to format your references using the Cognitive Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gates BD (2009) Materials science. Flexible electronics. Science 323:1566–1567
A journal article with 2 authors
Verheyden JM, Sun X (2008) An Fgf/Gremlin inhibitory feedback loop triggers termination of limb bud outgrowth. Nature 454:638–641
A journal article with 3 authors
Nilius N, Wallis TM, Ho W (2002) Development of one-dimensional band structure in artificial gold chains. Science 297:1853–1856
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jess DB, Mathioudakis M, Erdélyi R, et al (2009) Alfvén waves in the lower solar atmosphere. Science 323:1582–1585

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ferrant J-L, Gilson M, Jobert S, et al (2013) Synchronous Ethernet and IEEE 1588 in Telecoms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Salsa S (2013) A Primer on PDEs: Models, Methods, Simulations. Springer, Milano
A chapter in an edited book
Puri R, Nicholls SJ (2014) Monitoring the Progression and Regression of Coronary Atherosclerosis with Intravascular Ultrasound. In: Nicholls SJ, Crowe T (eds) Imaging Coronary Atherosclerosis. Springer, New York, NY, pp 67–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Processing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Is Your Sleep App Keeping You Up At Night? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Telecommunications: State and Federal Actions to Curb Slamming and Cramming. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stott NM (2012) Beta cell compensatory factors in nicotinic acid-induced insulin resistance. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2017) Tech Firms Make Push Toward TV. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gates 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Verheyden and Sun 2008; Gates 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Verheyden and Sun 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Jess et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Processing
AbbreviationCogn. Process.
ISSN (print)1612-4782
ISSN (online)1612-4790
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
General Medicine
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Other styles