How to format your references using the Cognitive Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chase JM (2010) Stochastic community assembly causes higher biodiversity in more productive environments. Science 328:1388–1391
A journal article with 2 authors
Fields S, Johnston M (2005) Cell biology. Whither model organism research? Science 307:1885–1886
A journal article with 3 authors
Kremer M, Brannen C, Glennerster R (2013) The challenge of education and learning in the developing world. Science 340:297–300
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ma W, Alonso-González P, Li S, et al (2018) In-plane anisotropic and ultra-low-loss polaritons in a natural van der Waals crystal. Nature 562:557–562

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazimierczuk MK (2014) RF Power Amplifiers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Weiland H, Rollett AD, Cassada WA (eds) (2016) ICAA13 Pittsburgh: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Aluminum Alloys. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Rizzi A, Montanari R, Bertolini M, et al (2011) Impiego della tecnologia RFID per la tracciabilità dei prodotti alimentari. In: Montanari R, Bertolini M, Bottani E, Volpi A (eds) Logistica e tecnologia RFID: Creare valore nella filiera alimentare e nel largo consumo. Springer, Milano, pp 111–149

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Processing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Novel System Calculates and “Prints” Patient Specific Drug Doses. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Air Passenger Screening: Transportation Security Administration Needs to Improve Complaint Processes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Soto M (2009) Barriers among Hispanic adults on dialysis that affect medication compliance. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hanc J (2017) Straight From a Boomer’s Attic. New York Times F8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chase 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Fields and Johnston 2005; Chase 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fields and Johnston 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Processing
AbbreviationCogn. Process.
ISSN (print)1612-4782
ISSN (online)1612-4790
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
General Medicine
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Other styles