How to format your references using the International Journal of Intercultural Relations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Intercultural Relations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown, B. R. (2003). Neurophysiology: Sensing temperature without ion channels. Nature, 421(6922), 495.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johansson, L. C., & Norberg, R. A. (2003). Delta-wing function of webbed feet gives hydrodynamic lift for swimming propulsion in birds. Nature, 424(6944), 65–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rai, V. K., Jackson, T. L., & Thiemens, M. H. (2005). Photochemical mass-independent sulfur isotopes in achondritic meteorites. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5737), 1062–1065.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zyryanova, A. F., Weis, F., Faille, A., Alard, A. A., Crespillo-Casado, A., Sekine, Y., Harding, H. P., Allen, F., Parts, L., Fromont, C., Fischer, P. M., Warren, A. J., & Ron, D. (2018). Binding of ISRIB reveals a regulatory site in the nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B. Science (New York, N.Y.), 359(6383), 1533–1536.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dudbridge, M. (2016). Handbook of Seal Integrity in the Food Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Paris, J., & Phillips, J. (Eds.). (2013). Making the DSM-5: Concepts and Controversies. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, N. (2011). Cultural Attitudes and Horse Technologies: A View on Chariots and Stirrups from the Eastern End of the Eurasian Continent. In F. Günergun & D. Raina (Eds.), Science between Europe and Asia: Historical Studies on the Transmission, Adoption and Adaptation of Knowledge (pp. 57–73). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Intercultural Relations.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 22). Cadaver Study Suggests Fist Fighting Could Have Played A Role In Hand Evolution. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Sports Arena (AIMD-95-209R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kamis, R. P. (2013). The Relationship between Expanded Concepts of Self and Well-Being [Doctoral dissertation]. Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, January 3). A Rested Williams Shakes Off the Rust. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brown, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brown, 2003; Johansson & Norberg, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johansson & Norberg, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Rai et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zyryanova et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
AbbreviationInt. J. Intercult. Relat.
ISSN (print)0147-1767
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Social Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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