How to format your references using the International Journal of Intercultural Relations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Intercultural Relations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Verma, I. M. (2012). Renato Dulbecco (1914-2012). Nature, 483(7390), 408.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dandekar, P., & Doherty, M. F. (2014). Materials science. Imaging crystallization. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6185), 705–706.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hart, G. W., Housley, M. P., & Slawson, C. (2007). Cycling of O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine on nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Nature, 446(7139), 1017–1022.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Vatanen, T., Franzosa, E. A., Schwager, R., Tripathi, S., Arthur, T. D., Vehik, K., … Xavier, R. J. (2018). The human gut microbiome in early-onset type 1 diabetes from the TEDDY study. Nature, 562(7728), 589–594.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diamond, D. (2015). Trading as a Business. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Satapathy, S. C., & Das, S. (Eds.). (2016). Proceedings of First International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Intelligent Systems: Volume 2 (Vol. 51). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Mohanraj, V., Vaidehi, V., Kumar, R., & Nakkeeran, R. (2016). Face Recognition in Video Using Deformable Parts Model with Scale Invariant Feature Transform (DPSIFT). In R. Chaki, A. Cortesi, K. Saeed, & N. Chaki (Eds.), Advanced Computing and Systems for Security: Volume 2 (pp. 69–80). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Intercultural Relations.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, June 27). Footage Of This Huge Bipedal Animal Is Freaking People Out. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Aviation Safety: Additional Actions Needed for Three Safety Programs (No. T-RCED-92-90). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duberstein, J. N. (2010). The shape of the commons: Social networks and the conservation of small-scale fisheries in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2012, November 23). Drawn From History and Imagination. New York Times, p. C33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Verma, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dandekar & Doherty, 2014; Verma, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dandekar & Doherty, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Hart, Housley, & Slawson, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Vatanen et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
AbbreviationInt. J. Intercult. Relat.
ISSN (print)0147-1767
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Social Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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