How to format your references using the International Journal of Intercultural Relations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Intercultural Relations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gould, P. L. (2008). Physics. Cold molecules beat the shakes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5899), 203–204.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nicholls, R. J., & Cazenave, A. (2010). Sea-level rise and its impact on coastal zones. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5985), 1517–1520.
A journal article with 3 authors
Casanova-Sáez, R., Candela, H., & Micol, J. L. (2014). Combined haploinsufficiency and purifying selection drive retention of RPL36a paralogs in Arabidopsis. Scientific Reports, 4, 4122.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Korennykh, A. V., Egea, P. F., Korostelev, A. A., Finer-Moore, J., Zhang, C., Shokat, K. M., Stroud, R. M., & Walter, P. (2009). The unfolded protein response signals through high-order assembly of Ire1. Nature, 457(7230), 687–693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Snell, R. S., & Lemp, M. A. (1997). Clinical Anatomy of the Eye. Blackwell Science Ltd,.
An edited book
Adesina, A. M., Tihan, T., Fuller, C. E., & Poussaint, T. Y. (Eds.). (2010). Atlas of Pediatric Brain Tumors. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Karvalics, L. Z. (2014). Emerging New Information Literacies – A Conceptual Outlook. In S. Kurbanoğlu, S. Špiranec, E. Grassian, D. Mizrachi, & R. Catts (Eds.), Information Literacy. Lifelong Learning and Digital Citizenship in the 21st Century: Second European Conference, ECIL 2014, Dubrovnik, Croatia, October 20-23, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 37–46). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Intercultural Relations.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, March 8). Yes, You Can Grow Potatoes On Mars. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). Costs of Government Funded Trips for Invitees To Attend Space Shuttle Launches at Kennedy Space Center, Florida (NSIAD-84-77). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McLeod, D. J. (2010). From fear to freedom: Overcoming obstacles and living truthfully in a role [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hostetter, M. A. (2016, September 30). Dear Dad: We’ve Been Gay for a Really Long Time. New York Times, ST6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gould, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Gould, 2008; Nicholls & Cazenave, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nicholls & Cazenave, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Casanova-Sáez et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Korennykh et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
AbbreviationInt. J. Intercult. Relat.
ISSN (print)0147-1767
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Social Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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