How to format your references using the International Journal of Intercultural Relations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Intercultural Relations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thwaites, T. (2014). Research metrics: calling science to account. Nature, 511(7510), S57-60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, G., & Cai, W. (2013). Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature. Scientific Reports, 3, 2039.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, A. C. Y., Petruccione, F., & Koch, J. (2014). Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems. Scientific Reports, 4, 4887.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, M., Bertram, M., Pollmann, M., von Oertzen, A., Mikhailov, A. S., Rotermund, H. H., & Ertl, G. (2001). Controlling chemical turbulence by global delayed feedback: pattern formation in catalytic CO oxidation on Pt(110). Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5520), 1357–1360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quesnel, F. (2014). Scheduling of Large-Scale Virtualized Infrastructures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vauthier, C., & Ponchel, G. (Eds.). (2016). Polymer Nanoparticles for Nanomedicines: A Guide for their Design, Preparation and Development. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Schnidman, E. A., & MacMillan, W. D. (2016). Transparency: Data Meets Democracy. In W. D. MacMillan (Ed.), How the Fed Moves Markets: Central Bank Analysis for the Modern Era (pp. 39–48). Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Intercultural Relations.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, October 14). This Video From Space Shows Two People Walking Round A Corner In North Korea. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Motorcycle Safety: Increasing Federal Funding Flexibility and Identifying Research Priorities Would Help Support States’ Safety Efforts (GAO-13-42). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sammons, J. L. (2012). Perceived benefits of and barriers to physical exercise in people with severe mental illness [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017, August 16). ‘Wow’: Stunned Cable News Hosts Reacted in Real Time to Trump. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thwaites, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Thwaites, 2014; Wang & Cai, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang & Cai, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Li et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kim et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
AbbreviationInt. J. Intercult. Relat.
ISSN (print)0147-1767
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Social Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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