How to format your references using the International Journal of Intercultural Relations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Intercultural Relations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stockwell, B. R. (2004). Exploring biology with small organic molecules. Nature, 432(7019), 846–854.
A journal article with 2 authors
May, M., & Brody, H. (2015). Nature Index 2015 Global. Nature, 522(7556), S1.
A journal article with 3 authors
McDermott, F., Mattey, D. P., & Hawkesworth, C. (2001). Centennial-scale Holocene climate variability revealed by a high-resolution speleothem delta 18O record from SW Ireland. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5545), 1328–1331.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nowoshilow, S., Schloissnig, S., Fei, J.-F., Dahl, A., Pang, A. W. C., Pippel, M., … Myers, E. W. (2018). The axolotl genome and the evolution of key tissue formation regulators. Nature, 554(7690), 50–55.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voit, B., Haag, R., Appelhans, D., & Welzel, P. B. (2016). Bio- and Multifunctional Polymer Architectures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Matamala, A., & Orero, P. (Eds.). (2016). Researching Audio Description: New Approaches. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Corrin, L., Bennett, S., & Lockyer, L. (2013). Digital Natives: Exploring the Diversity of Young People’s Experience with Technology. In R. Huang, Kinshuk, & J. M. Spector (Eds.), Reshaping Learning: Frontiers of Learning Technology in a Global Context (pp. 113–138). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Intercultural Relations.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, January 1). Top 10 Space Images Of 2014. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Information Technology: DHS Needs to Further Define and Implement Its New Governance Process (No. GAO-12-818). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Virchez Azuara, A. (2015). A human resource perspective on the development of workforce agility (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M. M. (2013, August 25). Your Earrings Remind Me of Grandma’s Gran Torino. New York Times, p. AU7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Roenneberg, 2013; Wang, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (May & Brody, 2015)
  • Three authors: (McDermott, Mattey, & Hawkesworth, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bonnet-Mercier et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
AbbreviationInt. J. Intercult. Relat.
ISSN (print)0147-1767
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Social Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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