How to format your references using the Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marquet PA. Ecology. Of predators, prey, and power laws. Science. 2002;295:2229–2230.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsuchiya T, Eulgem T. Mutations in EDM2 selectively affect silencing states of transposons and induce plant developmental plasticity. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1701.
A journal article with 3 authors
Froese T, Iizuka H, Ikegami T. Embodied social interaction constitutes social cognition in pairs of humans: a minimalist virtual reality experiment. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3672.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dong X-P, Cheng X, Mills E, et al. The type IV mucolipidosis-associated protein TRPML1 is an endolysosomal iron release channel. Nature. 2008;455:992–996.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaffney S, Francis C. Honesty Sells. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Graf S, Viswanathan M, editors. Formal Techniques for Distributed Objects, Components, and Systems: 35th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, FORTE 2015, Held as Part of the 10th International Federated Conference on Distributed Computing Techniques, DisCoTec 2015, Grenoble, France, June 2-4, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Voyiadjis GZ, Woelke P. Elasto-Plastic Geometrically Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Thick Plates and Shells. In: Woelke P, editor. Elasto-Plastic and Damage Analysis of Plates and Shells. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 91–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optimization.

Blog post
Taub B. Scientists Are Trying To Figure Out What The “Spirit Molecule” Does. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOT Contract Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992. Report No.: RCED-93-67R. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aramphongphun C. In-mold Coating of Thermoplastic and Composite Parts: Microfluidics and Rheology [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Starring in Someone Else’s Film. New York Times. 2016 Aug 19;MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptimization
ISSN (print)0233-1934
ISSN (online)1029-4945
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

Other styles