How to format your references using the Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDowell N. Joint European plan will tackle Africa’s killer diseases. Nature. 2003;421:5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gudmundsson A, Mohajeri N. Entropy and order in urban street networks. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3324.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hägglund C, Grätzel M, Kasemo B. Comment on “efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2” (II). Science. 2003;301:1673; discussion 1673.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ortmann JE, Liu JY, Hu J, et al. Competition between antiferromagnetism and ferromagnetism in Sr2RuO4 probed by Mn and Co doping. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2950.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray R. A History of American Literature. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Simchi-Levi D. The Logic of Logistics: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications for Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Second Edition. Chen X, Bramel J, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith DT, Pratt JR. Measurement of the Gold-Gold Bond Rupture Force at 4 K in a Single-Atom Chain Using Photon-Momentum-Based Force Calibration. In: Shaw GA, Prorok BC, Starman LA, editors. MEMS and Nanotechnology, Volume 6: Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 25–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optimization.

Blog post
Hale T. Anxiety-Inducing Medical Case Of “Penile Strangulation” Has A Happy Ending [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Vocational Education: Changes at High School Level After Amendments to Perkins Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995. Report No.: HEHS-95-144. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolfenden A. Factors predicting oncology care providers’ behavioral intention to adopt clinical decision support systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Harkes Knows the Feeling of Having to Sit Out an Important Match. New York Times. 2010 Jul 6;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptimization
ISSN (print)0233-1934
ISSN (online)1029-4945
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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