How to format your references using the Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heisenberg M. Is free will an illusion? Nature. 2009;459:164–165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Messing GL, Stevenson AJ. Materials science. Toward pore-free ceramics. Science. 2008;322:383–384.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martini IB, Barthel ER, Schwartz BJ. Optical control of electrons during electron transfer. Science. 2001;293:462–465.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhao Y, Rodrigo J, Hoveyda AH, et al. Enantioselective silyl protection of alcohols catalysed by an amino-acid-based small molecule. Nature. 2006;443:67–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meghouar H. Corporate Takeover Targets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Al-Tubaikh JA, editor. Internal Medicine: An Illustrated Radiological Guide. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Georgara D, Kermanidis KL, Mariolis I. Support Vector Machine Classification of Protein Sequences to Functional Families Based on Motif Selection. In: Iliadis L, Maglogiannis I, Papadopoulos H, editors. Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations: 8th IFIP WG 125 International Conference, AIAI 2012, Halkidiki, Greece, September 27-30, 2012, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 28–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optimization.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mental Health Is A Global Issue – Here’s How Neuroscience Can Cross International Boundaries. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Two Political Science Grants Awarded by the National Science Foundation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998. Report No.: RCED-98-91R. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ready C. Preventing childhood obesity in foster children: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Savage C. White House Lands 3 Punches Against Gay Rights in One Day. New York Times. 2017 Jul 28;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptimization
ISSN (print)0233-1934
ISSN (online)1029-4945
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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