How to format your references using the Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Smaglik P. Empire building: Vienna. Nature. 2002;416:4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Wright SI, Barrett SCH. Evolution. The long-term benefits of self-rejection. Science. 2010;330:459–460.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Brown T, Sibbett W, Wright EM. Laser physics. Getting to grips with light. Science. 2001;293:1265–1267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
Ramadan K, Bruderer R, Spiga FM, et al. Cdc48/p97 promotes reformation of the nucleus by extracting the kinase Aurora B from chromatin. Nature. 2007;450:1258–1262.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Goodman AH. Rehabilitating and Resettling Offenders in the Community. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Hagener M, Hediger V, Strohmaier A, editors. The State of Post-Cinema: Tracing the Moving Image in the Age of Digital Dissemination. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Kobsa A. Generic User Modeling Systems. In: Brusilovsky P, Kobsa A, Nejdl W, editors. The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 136–154.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optimization.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. There’s a Cyanide Cloud Hovering Over Titan, and It’s Big and Cold. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Global Positioning System: Significant Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Widely Used Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009. Report No.: GAO-09-325. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Boos AL. The post-abortion experience: A content analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. Rights of Unions and Nonmembers Vie at Court. New York Times. 2007 Jan 11;A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptimization
AbbreviationOptimization
ISSN (print)0233-1934
ISSN (online)1029-4945
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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