How to format your references using the Journal of Biotechnology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biotechnology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batty, M., 2006. Rank clocks. Nature 444, 592–596.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alsdorf, D.E., Lettenmaier, D.P., 2003. Geophysics. Tracking fresh water from space. Science 301, 1491–1494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, B., Baskin, R.J., Kowalczykowski, S.C., 2013. DNA unwinding heterogeneity by RecBCD results from static molecules able to equilibrate. Nature 500, 482–485.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xiao, M., Chen, L., Wu, X., Wen, F., 2014. The association between the rs6495309 polymorphism in CHRNA3 gene and lung cancer risk in Chinese: a meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 6372.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horton, I., 2010. Ivor Horton’s Beginning Visual C++® 2010. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
van Ham, M., Manley, D., Bailey, N., Simpson, L., Maclennan, D. (Eds.), 2012. Neighbourhood Effects Research: New Perspectives. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Croft, J., 2007. Creative Use of PNG Transparency in Web Design, in: Boulton, M., Clarke, A., Collison, S., Croft, J., Featherstone, D., Lloyd, I., Marcotte, E., Rubin, D., Weychert, R. (Eds.), Web Standards Creativity: Innovations in Web Design with XHTML, CSS, and DOM Scripting. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 108–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biotechnology: X.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Wormholes Could Solve A Key Problem With Quantum Mechanics [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Aviation Safety: Icing and Winter Weather-Related Recommendations That NTSB Has Issued Since 1996 (GAO-10-679SP), an E-supplement to (GAO-10-678) (No. GAO-10-679SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lazareva, O., 2010. Constructed wetland/filter basin system as a prospective pre-treatment option for aquifer storage and recovery and a potential remedy for elevated arsenic (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bernstein, J., Chang, B.-S., Billard, M., Williams, A., La Ferla, R., Holson, L.M., Harney, J., 2012. When The Power Came Back, So Did the Crowds. New York Times E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Batty, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Alsdorf and Lettenmaier, 2003; Batty, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Alsdorf and Lettenmaier, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biotechnology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1559

Other styles