How to format your references using the Journal of Biotechnology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biotechnology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sambles, J.R., 2015. Optics. Structured photons take it slow. Science 347, 828.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kent, D.V., Tauxe, L., 2005. Corrected Late Triassic latitudes for continents adjacent to the North Atlantic. Science 307, 240–244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Salvadori, M.R., Nascimento, C.A.O., Corrêa, B., 2014. Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus. Sci. Rep. 4, 6404.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gonzalez, D., Richez, M., Bergonzi, C., Chabriere, E., Elias, M., 2014. Crystal structure of the phosphate-binding protein (PBP-1) of an ABC-type phosphate transporter from Clostridium perfringens. Sci. Rep. 4, 6636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koch, S.N., Torres, S.M.F., Plumb, D.C., 2012. Canine and Feline Dermatology Drug Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Anttila, S., Boffetta, P. (Eds.), 2014. Occupational Cancers. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Nabity, J., Compbell, L.A., Zhu, M., Zhou, W., 2006. E-beam Nanolithography Integrated with Scanning Electron Microscope, in: Zhou, W., Wang, Z.L. (Eds.), Scanning Microscopy for Nanotechnology: Techniques and Applications. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 120–151.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biotechnology: X.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. New Footage Surfaces Of One Of The Largest Great White Sharks Ever Recorded [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Hazardous Waste: Problems and Cleanup Efforts at an FAA Facility in Oklahoma City (No. RCED-88-113FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wei, C.-S., 2017. Towards Brain Decoding for Real-World Drowsiness Detection (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, J., 2004. HOME FRONT/Erin St.; Trading Boardroom for a Camper’s Bunk. New York Times 101.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sambles, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kent and Tauxe, 2005; Sambles, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kent and Tauxe, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Gonzalez et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biotechnology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1559

Other styles