How to format your references using the Journal of Biotechnology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biotechnology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Petherick, A., 2010. Development: Mother’s milk: A rich opportunity. Nature 468, S5-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enright, M.C., Spratt, B.G., 2011. Genomics. The genomic view of bacterial diversification. Science 331, 407–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wojtak, R., Hansen, S.H., Hjorth, J., 2011. Gravitational redshift of galaxies in clusters as predicted by general relativity. Nature 477, 567–569.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Das, S.K., Eder, S., Schauer, S., Diwoky, C., Temmel, H., Guertl, B., Gorkiewicz, G., Tamilarasan, K.P., Kumari, P., Trauner, M., Zimmermann, R., Vesely, P., Haemmerle, G., Zechner, R., Hoefler, G., 2011. Adipose triglyceride lipase contributes to cancer-associated cachexia. Science 333, 233–238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tan, Y., 2016. Artificial Immune System Applications in Computersecurity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Astashev, V.K., 2007. Ultrasonic Processes and Machines: Dynamics, Control and Applications, Foundations of Engineering Mechanics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gärtner, B., Matoušek, J., 2012. Approximately Solving Semidefinite Programs, in: Matousek, J. (Ed.), Approximation Algorithms and Semidefinite Programming. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 75–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biotechnology: X.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Boldly Going Into Space for 1,000 Days Presents a Series of Health Risks [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Medical ADP Systems: Composite Health Care System Acquisition--Fair, Reasonable, Supported (No. IMTEC-88-26). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones, J.D., 2013. Parental attachment style: Links with parent and adolescent perceptions of parenting and observed secure base behaviors (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., 2016. Perseverance Pays for Ward, a New Champion and, Maybe, the Sport’s Next Big Star. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Petherick, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Enright and Spratt, 2011; Petherick, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Enright and Spratt, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Das et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biotechnology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1559

Other styles