How to format your references using the Optimization and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optimization and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kondoh M (2003) Foraging adaptation and the relationship between food-web complexity and stability. Science 299:1388–1391
A journal article with 2 authors
van Loosdrecht MCM, Brdjanovic D (2014) Water treatment. Anticipating the next century of wastewater treatment. Science 344:1452–1453
A journal article with 3 authors
Alben S, Shelley M, Zhang J (2002) Drag reduction through self-similar bending of a flexible body. Nature 420:479–481
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cao T, Wei C, Mao L, Li Y (2014) Extrinsic 2D chirality: giant circular conversion dichroism from a metal-dielectric-metal square array. Sci Rep 4:7442

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosenbaum J, Pearl J (2009) Investment Banking. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Karlovich YI, Rodino L, Silbermann B, Spitkovsky IM (eds) (2013) Operator Theory, Pseudo-Differential Equations, and Mathematical Physics: The Vladimir Rabinovich Anniversary Volume. Springer, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Young C (2014) The Need for a Management Plan and the 1st and 2nd Plans. In: Stone PG, Brough D (eds) Managing, Using, and Interpreting Hadrian’s Wall as World Heritage. Springer, New York, NY, pp 21–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optimization and Engineering.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Polish Man Becomes First Person Born Without A Hand To Receive A Transplant. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Status of the Research Fleet of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hitchings JD (2008) Teachers’ perceptions of evidence-based decision making: A case study of three schools in British Columbia. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) After Unceremonious Exit, Indian Wells Tournament Moves On. New York Times D6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kondoh 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kondoh 2003; van Loosdrecht and Brdjanovic 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Loosdrecht and Brdjanovic 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Cao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptimization and Engineering
AbbreviationOptim. Eng.
ISSN (print)1389-4420
ISSN (online)1573-2924
Aerospace Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Control and Optimization

Other styles