How to format your references using the Optimization and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optimization and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker M (2015) Antibody anarchy: A call to order. Nature 527:545–551
A journal article with 2 authors
Vargas-Rodriguez O, Musier-Forsyth K (2014) Structural biology: wobble puts RNA on target. Nature 510:480–481
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang L, Treisman A, Pashler H (2007) Characterizing the limits of human visual awareness. Science 317:823–825
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Steele IA, Mundell CG, Smith RJ, et al (2009) Ten per cent polarized optical emission from GRB 090102. Nature 462:767–769

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saliba AJ, Corona JC, Johnson KE (2010) Option Spread Strategies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Flandre D, Nazarov AN, Hemment PLF (eds) (2005) Science and Technology of Semiconductor-On-Insulator Structures and Devices Operating in a Harsh Environment: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Science and Technology of Semiconductor-On-Insulator Structures and Devices Operating in a Harsh Environment Kiev, Ukraine 26–30 April 2004. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Chhabra A, Geist H, Houghton RA, et al (2006) Multiple Impacts of Land-Use/Cover Change. In: Lambin EF, Geist H (eds) Land-Use and Land-Cover Change: Local Processes and Global Impacts. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 71–116

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optimization and Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Outstanding Jurassic Fossils Rediscovered After More Than 100 Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) IT Supply Chain: Additional Efforts Needed by National Security-Related Agencies to Address Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tengco MA (2017) Quality Home Care: Providing Personal Care and Homemaking Services for Seniors in the Community. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J (2017) Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times MM18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Vargas-Rodriguez and Musier-Forsyth 2014; Baker 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vargas-Rodriguez and Musier-Forsyth 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Steele et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptimization and Engineering
AbbreviationOptim. Eng.
ISSN (print)1389-4420
ISSN (online)1573-2924
Aerospace Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Control and Optimization

Other styles