How to format your references using the Optimization and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optimization and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berner RA (2003) The long-term carbon cycle, fossil fuels and atmospheric composition. Nature 426:323–326
A journal article with 2 authors
Nisbet EG, Sleep NH (2001) The habitat and nature of early life. Nature 409:1083–1091
A journal article with 3 authors
Nandy D, Muñoz-Jaramillo A, Martens PCH (2011) The unusual minimum of sunspot cycle 23 caused by meridional plasma flow variations. Nature 471:80–82
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Girard A, Sachidanandam R, Hannon GJ, Carmell MA (2006) A germline-specific class of small RNAs binds mammalian Piwi proteins. Nature 442:199–202

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dosil J (2008) Eating Disorders in Athletes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, England
An edited book
Herrling PL, Matter A, Rudin M (eds) (2005) Imaging in Drug Discovery and Early Clinical Trials. Birkhäuser, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Abedi S, Arvani A, Jamalzadeh R (2015) Cyber Security of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids: Application of Intrusion Detection Methods. In: Rajakaruna S, Shahnia F, Ghosh A (eds) Plug In Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids: Integration Techniques. Springer, Singapore, pp 129–147

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optimization and Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Fluorescent Embryos Could Unlock Secrets of Development. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Federal Research: The National Academy of Sciences and the Federal Advisory Committee Act. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ballard KJ (2012) Frequent factors for psychiatric hospital readmission. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lanchester J (2017) The Major Blind Spots in Macroeconomics. New York Times MM14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Berner 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Nisbet and Sleep 2001; Berner 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nisbet and Sleep 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Girard et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptimization and Engineering
AbbreviationOptim. Eng.
ISSN (print)1389-4420
ISSN (online)1573-2924
Aerospace Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Control and Optimization

Other styles