How to format your references using the Optimization and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optimization and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nielsen R (2006) Evolution. Why sex? Science 311:960–961
A journal article with 2 authors
Marks TJ, Hersam MC (2015) Materials science: Semiconductors grown large and thin. Nature 520:631–632
A journal article with 3 authors
Xi Z, Khoo CCH, Dobson SL (2005) Wolbachia establishment and invasion in an Aedes aegypti laboratory population. Science 310:326–328
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yaghi OM, O’Keeffe M, Ockwig NW, et al (2003) Reticular synthesis and the design of new materials. Nature 423:705–714

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Retherford RD, Choe MK (1993) Statistical Models for Causal Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lohmar D, Yamaguchi I (eds) (2010) On Time - New Contributions to the Husserlian Phenomenology of Time. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Heyneman SP, Lee J (2013) World-Class Universities: The Sector Requirements. In: Shin JC, Kehm BM (eds) Institutionalization of World-Class University in Global Competition. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 45–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optimization and Engineering.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) A Lake In Australia Has Turned A Fetching Shade Of Hot Pink. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Air Traffic Control: Role of FAA’s Modernization Program in Reducing Delays and Congestion. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gowda V (2009) Pollination biology and inter-island geographical variation in the mutualistic Heliconia (Heliconiaceae)-hummingbird (Trochilidae) interaction of the Eastern Caribbean Islands. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weiner J (2014) A Fight Is Brewing. New York Times MM52

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nielsen 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Nielsen 2006; Marks and Hersam 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marks and Hersam 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Yaghi et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptimization and Engineering
AbbreviationOptim. Eng.
ISSN (print)1389-4420
ISSN (online)1573-2924
Aerospace Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Control and Optimization

Other styles