How to format your references using the Biology Direct citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biology Direct. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Berendsen HJ. Bioinformatics. Reality simulation--observe while it happens. Science. 2001;294:2304–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jiang J-H, John S. Photonic architectures for equilibrium high-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation in dichalcogenide monolayers. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7432.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Loope DB, Rowe CM, Joeckel RM. Annual monsoon rains recorded by Jurassic dunes. Nature. 2001;412:64–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Juarez MT, Kui JS, Thomas J, Heller BA, Timmermans MCP. microRNA-mediated repression of rolled leaf1 specifies maize leaf polarity. Nature. 2004;428:84–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hornberger G, Wiberg P. Numerical Methods in the Hydrological Sciences. Washington D. C.: American Geophysical Union; 2005.
An edited book
1. Ernst E, editor. ECOOP 2007 – Object-Oriented Programming: 21st European Conference, Berlin, Germany, July 30 - August 3, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Horita M. When an Electronic Citizen Forum Works and When Not: An Organisational Analysis of the Mitaka Master Plan Process. In: Horita M, Koizumi H, editors. Innovations in Collaborative Urban Regeneration. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2009. p. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biology Direct.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. The Science of Strawberries: Why do They Taste so Good? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/science-strawberries-why-do-they-taste-so-good/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Title I Formula in S. 1513. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jun. Report No.: HEHS-94-190R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bigler WH. Increased substance abuse treatment for adolescents [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wasik JF. Once a Thing of the Past, the House Call Makes a Modest Comeback. New York Times. 2016 Sep 23;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiology Direct
AbbreviationBiol. Direct
ISSN (online)1745-6150
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Immunology
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles