How to format your references using the Biology Direct citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biology Direct. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Farrar J. H5N1 surveillance: Shift expertise to where it matters. Nature. 2012;483:534–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Le Borgne M, Shaw AS. Immunology. Do T cells have a cilium? Science. 2013;342:1177–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Brown MS, Ye J, Goldstein JL. Medicine. HDL miR-ed down by SREBP introns. Science. 2010;328:1495–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hiller NL, Bhattacharjee S, van Ooij C, Liolios K, Harrison T, Lopez-Estraño C, et al. A host-targeting signal in virulence proteins reveals a secretome in malarial infection. Science. 2004;306:1934–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wegener E. Montagegerechte Anlagenplanung. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2003.
An edited book
1. Syed KT, editor. Through White Noise: Autonarrative Exploration of Racism, Discrimination, and the Doorways to Academic Citizenship in Canada. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ahmed S. Application of Geostatistics in Hydrosciences. In: Thangarajan M, editor. Groundwater: Resource Evaluation, Augmentation, Contamination, Restoration, Modeling and Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. p. 78–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biology Direct.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Catsharks Glow Brighter The Deeper They Go [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/catsharks-glow-brighter-deeper-they-go/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Agencies Administering Programs Related to Marine Science Activities and Oceanic Affairs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Feb. Report No.: GGD-75-61.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Stahlhut CW. Aerodynamic design optimization of proprotors for convertible-rotor concepts [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Even With Yanks Hurting, There’s Usually Pain to Spare for Mets. New York Times. 2013 May 28;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiology Direct
AbbreviationBiol. Direct
ISSN (online)1745-6150
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Immunology
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles