How to format your references using the Optics Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optics Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Lill, Function and biogenesis of iron-sulphur proteins, Nature. 460 (2009) 831–838.
A journal article with 2 authors
U.K. Tirlapur, K. König, Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser, Nature. 418 (2002) 290–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Attardo, J.E. Fitzgerald, M.J. Schnitzer, Impermanence of dendritic spines in live adult CA1 hippocampus, Nature. 523 (2015) 592–596.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.J. Wilkinson, L.J. Elliott, J. Allainguillaume, M.W. Shaw, C. Norris, R. Welters, M. Alexander, J. Sweet, D.C. Mason, Hybridization between Brassica napus and B. rapa on a national scale in the United Kingdom, Science. 302 (2003) 457–459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Lafontaine, M. Comet, Nanothermites, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
M.B.A. Oldstone, ed., Molecular Mimicry: Infection-Inducing Autoimmune Disease, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Lee, F.M. Moghaddam, R. Harré, Internationalizing the Social Psychology Curriculum in the USA, in: F.T.L. Leong, W.E. Pickren, M.M. Leach, A.J. Marsella (Eds.), Internationalizing the Psychology Curriculum in the United States, Springer, New York, NY, 2012: pp. 75–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optics Communications.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Progress on Gene Therapy for Motor Neurone Disease, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FCC: Unlicensed NII Devices in the 5 GHz Frequency Range, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O. Brown, Business and IT leaders’ behavioral affects on alignment and project outcome: A comparative leadership study, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, S. Sengupta, Russia Backs U.N. Vote to Send Monitors to Aleppo, as Evacuations Resume, New York Times. (2016) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptics Communications
AbbreviationOpt. Commun.
ISSN (print)0030-4018
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles