How to format your references using the Optics Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optics Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Clayton, RNA interference: the silent treatment, Nature. 431 (2004) 599–605.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.C. Finlay, A. Jackson, Equatorially dominated magnetic field change at the surface of Earth’s core, Science. 300 (2003) 2084–2086.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Lemieux, C. Otis, M. Turmel, Ancestral chloroplast genome in Mesostigma viride reveals an early branch of green plant evolution, Nature. 403 (2000) 649–652.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.H. Chalasani, N. Chronis, M. Tsunozaki, J.M. Gray, D. Ramot, M.B. Goodman, C.I. Bargmann, Dissecting a circuit for olfactory behaviour in Caenorhabditis elegans, Nature. 450 (2007) 63–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Rounds, R. Segner, Construction Supervision, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
A. De Gloria, ed., Games and Learning Alliance: Third International Conference, GALA 2014, Bucharest, Romania, July 2-4, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
É.L. Bourg, Mild Stress and Life Extension in Drosophila melanogaster, in: C. Sell, A. Lorenzini, H.M. Brown-Borg (Eds.), Life-Span Extension: Single-Cell Organisms to Man, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2009: pp. 75–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optics Communications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Cloudy Issue: We Need To Fix The Barrier Reef’s Murky Waters, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Amtrak Management: Systemic Problems Require Actions to Improve Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Accountability, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W.P. Webster, The Influence of Philanthropy and Administrative Decision-making Models on a Liberal Arts College’s Strategic Planning Process: A Case Study, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hodara, An Eye for the 20th Century, New York Times. (2014) WE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptics Communications
AbbreviationOpt. Commun.
ISSN (print)0030-4018
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles