How to format your references using the Optics Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optics Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.M. Hakim, Perspective: silent, but preventable, perils, Nature. 510 (2014) S12.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.J. Woolf, S. Bloechlinger, Neuroscience. It takes more than two to Nogo, Science. 297 (2002) 1132–1134.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.C. King, C.P. Lusk, G. Blobel, Karyopherin-mediated import of integral inner nuclear membrane proteins, Nature. 442 (2006) 1003–1007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K.-S. Park, D.P. Mohapatra, H. Misonou, J.S. Trimmer, Graded regulation of the Kv2.1 potassium channel by variable phosphorylation, Science. 313 (2006) 976–979.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.C. Bauldry, Introduction to Real Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
F.A. Carey, Advanced Organic Chemistry: Part B: Reactions and Synthesis, 5th ed., Springer US, Boston, MA, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
P.R. Srivastava, M. Ray, J. Dermoudy, B.-H. Kang, T.-H. Kim, Test Case Minimization and Prioritization Using CMIMX Technique, in: D. Ślęzak, T.-H. Kim, A. Kiumi, T. Jiang, J. Verner, S. Abrahão (Eds.), Advances in Software Engineering: International Conference on Advanced Software Engineering and Its Applications, ASEA 2009 Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2009, Jeju Island, Korea, December 10-12, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 25–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optics Communications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Ants Prove Useful in Detecting Land Containing Gold, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Next Generation Air Transportation System: Preliminary Analysis of Progress and Challenges Associated with the Transformation of the National Airspace System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.P. Spralja, The intersections of culture and business: An ethnographic study of multicultural second generation young entrepreneurs, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Rothenberg, After Unceremonious Exit, Indian Wells Tournament Moves On, New York Times. (2017) D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptics Communications
AbbreviationOpt. Commun.
ISSN (print)0030-4018
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles