How to format your references using the Environmental Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schrag DP (2009) Storage of carbon dioxide in offshore sediments. Science 325:1658–1659
A journal article with 2 authors
Xiong W, Ferrell JE Jr (2003) A positive-feedback-based bistable “memory module” that governs a cell fate decision. Nature 426:460–465
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith TM, Karl TR, Reynolds RW (2002) Climate modeling. How accurate are climate simulations? Science 296:483–484
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Araujo PT, Frank O, Mafra DL, et al (2013) Mass-related inversion symmetry breaking and phonon self-energy renormalization in isotopically labeled AB-stacked bilayer graphene. Sci Rep 3:2061

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitajima M (2016) Memory and Action Selection in Human-Machine Interaction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ralyté J, España S, Pastor Ó (eds) (2015) The Practice of Enterprise Modeling: 8th IFIP WG 8.1. Working Conference, PoEM 2015, Valencia, Spain, November 10-12, 2015, Proceedings, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Humbert JS, Hyslop AM (2012) Insect tangential cell analogues and implications for efficient visuomotor control. In: Humphrey JAC, Srinivasan MV (eds) Frontiers in Sensing: From Biology to Engineering. Springer, Vienna, pp 57–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Roman British Skeleton Buried Face Down With Mutilated Tongue Puzzles Archaeologists. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Higher Education: School’s Use of the Antitrust Exemption Has Not Significantly Affected College Affordability or Likelihood of Student Enrollment to Date. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abedin G (2010) Exploring the potential of art-based education for adolescents with learning disabilities: A case study of engagement in learning through the arts. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Philipps D, Hubbard B (2017) Video Shows U.S. Soldiers Who Died In Jordan. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schrag 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Xiong and Ferrell 2003; Schrag 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xiong and Ferrell 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Araujo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Earth Sciences
AbbreviationEnviron. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)1866-6280
ISSN (online)1866-6299
ScopeSoil Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change
Water Science and Technology

Other styles