How to format your references using the Environmental Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huron D (2008) Science & music: lost in music. Nature 453:456–457
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson-Capps JJ, Cech TR (2014) Academia and industry: Companies on campus. Nature 514:297–298
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakai T, Larsen M, Yamada KM (2003) Fibronectin requirement in branching morphogenesis. Nature 423:876–881
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Religa TL, Markson JS, Mayor U, et al (2005) Solution structure of a protein denatured state and folding intermediate. Nature 437:1053–1056

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ytterdal T, Cheng Y, Fjeldly TA (2003) Device Modeling for Analog and RF CMOS Circuit Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Micu DM (2015) Climate of the Romanian Carpathians: Variability and Trends. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
O’Donnell KA (2007) Small-Amplitude Perturbation Theory for One-Dimensionally Rough Surfaces. In: Maradudin AA (ed) Light Scattering and Nanoscale Surface Roughness. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 107–126

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Antibiotic Resistance Now A Global Threat According To Latest WHO Report. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Financial Management: NASA’s Financial Reports Are Based on Unreliable Data. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escamilla D (2012) How performance following the implementation of a new structure affects employee engagement. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2015) The Rise of Modigliani’s Profile, and the Asking Prices for His Works. New York Times C36

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huron 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Huron 2008; Watson-Capps and Cech 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watson-Capps and Cech 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Religa et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Earth Sciences
AbbreviationEnviron. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)1866-6280
ISSN (online)1866-6299
ScopeSoil Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change
Water Science and Technology

Other styles