How to format your references using the Environmental Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fürstner A (2013) Teaching metathesis “simple” stereochemistry. Science 341:1229713
A journal article with 2 authors
McCarthy PM, Smith WA (2002) Mechanical circulatory support--a long and winding road. Science 295:998–999
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang YV, Ni J, Montell C (2013) The molecular basis for attractive salt-taste coding in Drosophila. Science 340:1334–1338
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Legros M, Dehm G, Arzt E, Balk TJ (2008) Observation of giant diffusivity along dislocation cores. Science 319:1646–1649

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hitchner JR (2017) Financial Valuation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Beauchamp JW (ed) (2007) Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds: The Sound of Music. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Grankov AG, Milshin AA (2016) Influence of Horizontal Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere Boundary Layer on the Relationship Between the SOA’s Brightness Temperature and Surface Heat Fluxes: Modeling. In: Milshin AA (ed) Microwave Radiation of the Ocean-Atmosphere: Boundary Heat and Dynamic Interaction. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 73–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Top Scientist Bizarrely Claims Women “Don’t Understand’ Fracking. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) FAA Purchase Cards: Weak Controls Resulted in Instances of Improper and Wasteful Purchases and Missing Assets. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crosby AE (2012) A phenomenological heuristic study of psychosocial factors that contribute to African American females’ HIV seroconversion. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2017) Where the Curriculum Is Hair-Raising. New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fürstner 2013).
This sentence cites two references (McCarthy and Smith 2002; Fürstner 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McCarthy and Smith 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Legros et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Earth Sciences
AbbreviationEnviron. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)1866-6280
ISSN (online)1866-6299
ScopeSoil Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change
Water Science and Technology

Other styles