How to format your references using the Environmental Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles S (2006) Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism. Science 314:1569–1572
A journal article with 2 authors
Chiappe LM, Bertelli S (2006) Palaeontology: skull morphology of giant terror birds. Nature 443:929
A journal article with 3 authors
LaDeau SL, Kilpatrick AM, Marra PP (2007) West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations. Nature 447:710–713
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Masmanidis SC, Karabalin RB, De Vlaminck I, et al (2007) Multifunctional nanomechanical systems via tunably coupled piezoelectric actuation. Science 317:780–783

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Exposito E (2012) Advanced Transport Protocols. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Penichet ML, Jensen-Jarolim E (eds) (2010) Cancer and IgE: Introducing the Concept of AllergoOncology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ
A chapter in an edited book
Procopiou M, Meier CA (2007) Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules. In: Oertli D, Udelsman R (eds) Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Bats Cock Their Heads In An Adorable Way To Help Them Hunt Better. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/bats-cock-their-heads-in-an-adorable-way-to-help-them-hunt-better/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Telecommunications: Information on Participation in the E-rate Program (GAO-09-254SP, March 2009), an e-supplement to GAO-09-253. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson EM (2017) Lessons Learned from the Gender Wage Gap in the Federal Workforce: Structural Changes and Temporal Flexibility are Only the First Step to Equality. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2011) Irish Soda Bread, Family Style. New York Times NJ10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowles 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Chiappe and Bertelli 2006; Bowles 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chiappe and Bertelli 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Masmanidis et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Earth Sciences
AbbreviationEnviron. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)1866-6280
ISSN (online)1866-6299
ScopeSoil Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Geology
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change
Pollution
Water Science and Technology

Other styles