How to format your references using the Environmental Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Finney C (2015) Conservation economics. Comment on “Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot.” Science 347:731
A journal article with 2 authors
Korber B, Gnanakaran S (2011) AIDS/HIV. Converging on an HIV vaccine. Science 333:1589–1590
A journal article with 3 authors
Heimpel M, Aurnou J, Wicht J (2005) Simulation of equatorial and high-latitude jets on Jupiter in a deep convection model. Nature 438:193–196
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bornstein C, Nevo S, Giladi A, et al (2018) Single-cell mapping of the thymic stroma identifies IL-25-producing tuft epithelial cells. Nature 559:622–626

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith RA (2010) Virgil. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Shi YQ (ed) (2008) Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security III. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bartl R, Frisch B (2009) Risk Factors for Fractures. In: Frisch B (ed) Osteoporosis: Diagnosis, Prevention, Therapy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) Tattoo-like sensor actively monitors patient. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) ADP Modernization: IRS’ Progress on the Electronic Filing System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Balakrishnan G (2017) Cognitive radio cooperative spectrum sensing. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo K (2015) Deborah Davis on Andy Warhol and Driving Route 66. New York Times TR3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Finney 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Korber and Gnanakaran 2011; Finney 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Korber and Gnanakaran 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Bornstein et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Earth Sciences
AbbreviationEnviron. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)1866-6280
ISSN (online)1866-6299
ScopeSoil Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change
Water Science and Technology

Other styles