How to format your references using the Information Systems Frontiers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Systems Frontiers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mayer, G. (2005). Rigid biological systems as models for synthetic composites. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5751), 1144–1147.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rivera, L. B., & Bergers, G. (2015). CANCER. Tumor angiogenesis, from foe to friend. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6249), 694–695.
A journal article with 3 authors
Efeyan, A., Comb, W. C., & Sabatini, D. M. (2015). Nutrient-sensing mechanisms and pathways. Nature, 517(7534), 302–310.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kirmizis, A., Santos-Rosa, H., Penkett, C. J., Singer, M. A., Vermeulen, M., Mann, M., et al. (2007). Arginine methylation at histone H3R2 controls deposition of H3K4 trimethylation. Nature, 449(7164), 928–932.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yakir, B. (2013). Extremes in Random Fields: A Theory and its Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mächtle, W. (2006). Analytical Ultracentrifugation of Polymers and Nanoparticles. (L. Börger, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Alió, J. L., Klonowski, P., & Rodriguez-Prats, J. L. (2010). MICS Instrumentation. In J. L. Alió & I. H. Fine (Eds.), Minimizing Incisions and Maximizing Outcomes in Cataract Surgery (pp. 25–36). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Systems Frontiers.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, July 17). Polar Bears in Summer Low-Energy Modes Don’t Save That Much. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Polar Satellites: Agencies Need to Address Potential Gaps in Weather and Climate Data Coverage (No. GAO-11-945T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Okafor-Dike, L. C. (2008). The effect of leadership on economic development: A case study of Nigeria (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, July 23). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: A Photo Opportunity; Serendipity or Not, Truck Full of Spuds Becomes a Star. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mayer 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Mayer 2005; Rivera and Bergers 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rivera and Bergers 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Kirmizis et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Systems Frontiers
AbbreviationInf. Syst. Front.
ISSN (print)1387-3326
ISSN (online)1572-9419
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Theoretical Computer Science

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