How to format your references using the Information Systems Frontiers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Systems Frontiers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Broz, P. (2015). Immunology: Caspase target drives pyroptosis. Nature, 526(7575), 642–643.
A journal article with 2 authors
Biju, S. D., & Bossuyt, F. (2003). New frog family from India reveals an ancient biogeographical link with the Seychelles. Nature, 425(6959), 711–714.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mason, A. C., Oshinsky, M. L., & Hoy, R. R. (2001). Hyperacute directional hearing in a microscale auditory system. Nature, 410(6829), 686–690.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tamura, Y., Hattori, M., Yoshioka, H., Yoshioka, M., Takahashi, A., Wu, J., et al. (2014). Map-based cloning and characterization of a brown planthopper resistance gene BPH26 from Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica cultivar ADR52. Scientific reports, 4, 5872.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (2015). Guidelines for Initiating Events and Independent Protection Layers in Layer of Protection Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Modrow, S. (2013). Molecular Virology. (D. Falke, U. Truyen, & H. Schätzl, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kobayashi, T., Okada, H., Makimoto, N., Oyama, S., Funakubo, H., Itoh, T., & Maeda, R. (2014). MEMS-based microsensors using piezoelectric thin films as sensors and actuators. In W. Udomkichdecha, T. Böllinghaus, A. Manonukul, & J. Lexow (Eds.), Materials Challenges and Testing for Manufacturing, Mobility, Biomedical Applications and Climate (pp. 37–47). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Systems Frontiers.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, May 29). This Is What It Looks Like Inside A Beatboxer’s Throat. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Space Transportation System (No. 093513). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sydow, K. (2010). A life review and Memory Album program to enhance family communication in assisted living (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2009, April 12). Sorting Out their Goals, and Options. New York Times, p. WE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Broz 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Biju and Bossuyt 2003; Broz 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Biju and Bossuyt 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Tamura et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Systems Frontiers
AbbreviationInf. Syst. Front.
ISSN (print)1387-3326
ISSN (online)1572-9419
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Theoretical Computer Science

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