How to format your references using the Information Systems Frontiers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Systems Frontiers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maynard, A. D. (2011). Don’t define nanomaterials. Nature, 475(7354), 31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Domokos, G., & Scheuring, I. (2002). Random perturbations and lattice effects in chaotic population dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5590), 2163; discussion 2163.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ladet, S., David, L., & Domard, A. (2008). Multi-membrane hydrogels. Nature, 452(7183), 76–79.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wu, C., Cheng, Y.-Y., Yin, H., Song, X.-N., Li, W.-W., Zhou, X.-X., et al. (2013). Oxygen promotes biofilm formation of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 through a diguanylate cyclase and an adhesin. Scientific reports, 3, 1945.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazzi, B. (2013). Treasury Finance and Development Banking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Woicik, J. (Ed.). (2016). Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) (Vol. 59). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Joarde, R., & Crundwell, N. (2009). Basic Patterns of Lung Disease. In R. Joarde & N. Crundwell (Eds.), Chest X-Ray in Clinical Practice (pp. 55–56). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Systems Frontiers.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 6). Insects Are the Great Survivors in Evolution: New Study. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Intellectual Property: Deposits of Biological Materials in Support of Certain Patent Applications (No. GAO-01-49). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turkel, C. C. (2008). Female leaders’ 360-degree self -perception accuracy for leadership competencies and skills (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. JOHN KELLY, E. (1998, July 26). Navy Yard, Recommissioned. New York Times, p. 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maynard 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Domokos and Scheuring 2002; Maynard 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Domokos and Scheuring 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Systems Frontiers
AbbreviationInf. Syst. Front.
ISSN (print)1387-3326
ISSN (online)1572-9419
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Theoretical Computer Science

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