How to format your references using the Information Systems Frontiers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Systems Frontiers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Chadarevian, S. (2003). Perceptions in science. The making of an icon. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5617), 255–257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomassen, M. J., & Kavuru, M. S. (2014). Lung disease: Treatment by cell transplant. Nature, 514(7523), 438–440.
A journal article with 3 authors
LeCun, Y., Bengio, Y., & Hinton, G. (2015). Deep learning. Nature, 521(7553), 436–444.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shi, D.-T., Wei, X.-L., Sheng, Y., Zang, Y., He, X.-P., Xie, J., et al. (2014). Substitution pattern reverses the fluorescence response of coumarin glycoligands upon coordination with silver (I). Scientific reports, 4, 4252.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hochberg, Z. (2011). Evo-Devo of Child Growth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Randelli, P., Dejour, D., van Dijk, C. N., Denti, M., & Seil, R. (Eds.). (2016). Arthroscopy: Basic to Advanced. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mudelsee, M., & Lohmann, G. (2015). Climate Sensitivity During and Between Interglacials. In M. Schulz & A. Paul (Eds.), Integrated Analysis of Interglacial Climate Dynamics (INTERDYNAMIC) (pp. 19–23). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Systems Frontiers.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 27). John Nash: A Beautiful Mind And Its Exquisite Mathematics. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Rail Safety: Federal Railroad Administration Should Report on Risks to the Successful Implementation of Mandated Safety Technology (No. GAO-11-133). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marlatt, E. S. (2013). Effects of accelerated instruction on achievement gains of underprepared Catholic high school freshmen (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2017, October 13). Where Do All the Disgraced C.E.O.s Go? New York Times, p. BU12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Chadarevian 2003).
This sentence cites two references (de Chadarevian 2003; Thomassen and Kavuru 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thomassen and Kavuru 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Shi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Systems Frontiers
AbbreviationInf. Syst. Front.
ISSN (print)1387-3326
ISSN (online)1572-9419
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Theoretical Computer Science

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