How to format your references using the Optical Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carmeliet, P.: Biomedicine. Clotting factors build blood vessels. Science. 293, 1602–1604 (2001)
A journal article with 2 authors
Burtsev, M., Turchin, P.: Evolution of cooperative strategies from first principles. Nature. 440, 1041–1044 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Haas, J.S., Zavala, B., Landisman, C.E.: Activity-dependent long-term depression of electrical synapses. Science. 334, 389–393 (2011)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kirkegaard, T., Roth, A.G., Petersen, N.H.T., Mahalka, A.K., Olsen, O.D., Moilanen, I., Zylicz, A., Knudsen, J., Sandhoff, K., Arenz, C., Kinnunen, P.K.J., Nylandsted, J., Jäättelä, M.: Hsp70 stabilizes lysosomes and reverts Niemann-Pick disease-associated lysosomal pathology. Nature. 463, 549–553 (2010)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sofronas, A.: Analytical Troubleshooting of Process Machinery and Pressure Vessels. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005)
An edited book
Eugster, P. ed: Object-Oriented Technology. ECOOP 2008 Workshop Reader: ECOOP 2008 Workshops Paphos, Cyprus, July 7-11, 2008 Final Reports. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Maynard, A.E., Greenfield, P.M.: An Ethnomodel of Teaching and Learning. In: Martini, M.I. (ed.) Learning in Cultural Context: Family, Peers, and School. pp. 75–103. Springer US, Boston, MA (2005)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Review.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Meteorite Simulations Hint At Water-Rich Mars


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Department of Education: Key Aspects of the Federal Direct Loan Program’s Cost Estimates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2001)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leak, S.C.: Building community capacity to meet the needs of our aging society: Interdisciplinary competency development for professionals, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Higgins, A.: A Trail of Masterpieces and a Web of Lies, Leading to Anguish, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Review
AbbreviationOpt. Rev.
ISSN (print)1340-6000
ISSN (online)1349-9432
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles