How to format your references using the Optical Materials: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Materials: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.C. Baker, Reef corals bleach to survive change, Nature. 411 (2001) 765–766.
A journal article with 2 authors
V. Maheshwari, R.F. Saraf, High-resolution thin-film device to sense texture by touch, Science. 312 (2006) 1501–1504.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Takeuchi, N. Nakatsuji, H. Suemori, Endodermal differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to insulin-producing cells in 3D culture, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4488.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Kodambaka, J. Tersoff, M.C. Reuter, F.M. Ross, Germanium nanowire growth below the eutectic temperature, Science. 316 (2007) 729–732.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geotechni, K. Laackmann, H. Balthaus, O. Braach, W.-D. Friebel, A. Hettler, B. Maidl, M. Meissner, W. Schuck, S. Schwaiger, D. Stephan, M. Thewes, B. Wittke-Schmitt, Taschenbuch für den Tunnelbau 2015, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2015.
An edited book
H.L.J. Makin, D.B. Gower, eds., Steroid Analysis, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
P.-C.K. Lin, S.P. Khatri, ATPG for Cancer Therapy, in: S.P. Khatri (Ed.), Logic Synthesis for Genetic Diseases: Modeling Disease Behavior Using Boolean Networks, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 77–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Materials: X.

Blog post
J. Fang, Dogs Decipher Cues From Other Dogs’ Barks, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Minicomputers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Z.S. Nuno, Visible and mid-infrared optical studies of plasmon and phonon resonant nanoparticles using apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, Pentatonix Is No. 1; Michael’s Streams Soar, New York Times. (2016) C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Materials: X
ISSN (print)2590-1478

Other styles