How to format your references using the Theory and Decision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory and Decision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grotzinger, J. P. (2014). Exploring martian habitability. Habitability, taphonomy, and the search for organic carbon on Mars. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6169), 386–387.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carrete, M., & Tella, J. L. (2013). High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls. Scientific reports, 3, 3524.
A journal article with 3 authors
Losos, J. B., Schoener, T. W., & Spiller, D. A. (2004). Predator-induced behaviour shifts and natural selection in field-experimental lizard populations. Nature, 432(7016), 505–508.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pham, N. H., Ohya, S., Tanaka, M., Barnes, S. E., & Maekawa, S. (2009). Electromotive force and huge magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions. Nature, 458(7237), 489–492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flaus, J.-M. (2013). Risk Analysis. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yevzlin, A. S., Asif, A., & Salman, L. (Eds.). (2014). Interventional Nephrology: Principles and Practice. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Craig, W. (2008). Transformation theory of Hamiltonian PDE and the problem of water waves. In W. Craig (Ed.), Hamiltonian Dynamical Systems and Applications (pp. 67–83). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory and Decision.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, July 6). This Cricket Was Infested By “Mind Controlling” Worms. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Software Distribution: Review of the Department of Energy’s National Energy Software Center (No. IMTEC-88-2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gu, P. (2017). Advanced Nonlinear Control and Estimation Methods for AC Power Generation Systems (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S. M. (2013, December 12). A Live-In Love Triangle Ends in a Beating Death. New York Times, p. A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grotzinger 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Carrete and Tella 2013; Grotzinger 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carrete and Tella 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Pham et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory and Decision
AbbreviationTheory Decis.
ISSN (print)0040-5833
ISSN (online)1573-7187
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computer Science Applications
General Decision Sciences
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance
Applied Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology
General Social Sciences

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