How to format your references using the Theory and Decision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory and Decision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donath, J. (2007). Computer science. Virtually trustworthy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5834), 53–54.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hashizume, K., & Chaussidon, M. (2005). A non-terrestrial 16O-rich isotopic composition for the protosolar nebula. Nature, 434(7033), 619–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Storch, N. I., Anderson, K. R., & Lai, D. (2014). Chaotic dynamics of stellar spin in binaries and the production of misaligned hot Jupiters. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6202), 1317–1321.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hopkins, B. D., Pauli, C., Du, X., Wang, D. G., Li, X., Wu, D., et al. (2018). Publisher Correction: Suppression of insulin feedback enhances the efficacy of PI3K inhibitors. Nature, 563(7731), E24.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gunn, A., & Pitt, S. J. (2012). Parasitology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bebis, G., Boyle, R., Parvin, B., Koracin, D., Kuno, Y., Wang, J., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Advances in Visual Computing: 5th International Symposium, ISVC 2009, Las Vegas, NV, USA, November 30-December 2, 2009. Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 5876). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Madsen, O. L. (2014). Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions. In G. Agha, A. Igarashi, N. Kobayashi, H. Masuhara, S. Matsuoka, E. Shibayama, & K. Taura (Eds.), Concurrent Objects and Beyond: Papers dedicated to Akinori Yonezawa on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday (pp. 66–104). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory and Decision.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 25). The LHC Is Back And It’s Ready To Probe The Limits Of Matter. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Motor Vehicle Safety: Information on Recent Controversy Between NHTSA and Consumer Group (No. RCED-90-221). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holloway, L. R. (2013). Synthesis and investigation of novel dinitrosyl-Iron complexes of chelated Bis-phosphine ligands: Potential nitric oxide delivery compounds (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
David Goodman, J. (2017, October 20). Police Issue Fewer Tickets for Minor Offenses Such as Public Urination. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Donath 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Donath 2007; Hashizume and Chaussidon 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hashizume and Chaussidon 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Hopkins et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory and Decision
AbbreviationTheory Decis.
ISSN (print)0040-5833
ISSN (online)1573-7187
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computer Science Applications
General Decision Sciences
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance
Applied Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology
General Social Sciences

Other styles