How to format your references using the Theory and Decision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory and Decision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Janvier, P. (2015). Facts and fancies about early fossil chordates and vertebrates. Nature, 520(7548), 483–489.
A journal article with 2 authors
Furukawa, N., & Mima, J. (2014). Multiple and distinct strategies of yeast SNAREs to confer the specificity of membrane fusion. Scientific reports, 4, 4277.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rhode, S. C., Pawlowski, M., & Tollrian, R. (2001). The impact of ultraviolet radiation on the vertical distribution of zooplankton of the genus Daphnia. Nature, 412(6842), 69–72.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, E., Kyhm, J., Kim, J. H., Lee, G. Y., Ko, D.-H., Han, I. K., & Ko, H. (2013). White light emission from polystyrene under pulsed ultra violet laser irradiation. Scientific reports, 3, 3253.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ehrlich, E., & Fanelli, D. (2012). The Financial Services Marketing Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Turcan, R. V., Reilly, J. E., & Bugaian, L. (Eds.). (2016). (Re)Discovering University Autonomy: The Global Market Paradox of Stakeholder and Educational Values in Higher Education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Treece, G., Lindop, J., Gee, A., & Prager, R. (2009). Near-Real-Time 3D Ultrasonic Strain Imaging. In I. Akiyama (Ed.), Acoustical Imaging (pp. 27–32). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory and Decision.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, April 30). New Gloves Could Let You Feel In Virtual Reality. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Commercial Space: Industry Developments and FAA Challenges (No. GAO-16-765T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guzman, F. (2013). Terra Forming with You and Me (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J. (2016, September 21). The Deflategate Scientists Unlock Their Lab. New York Times, p. SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Janvier 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Furukawa and Mima 2014; Janvier 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Furukawa and Mima 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory and Decision
AbbreviationTheory Decis.
ISSN (print)0040-5833
ISSN (online)1573-7187
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computer Science Applications
General Decision Sciences
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance
Applied Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology
General Social Sciences

Other styles