How to format your references using the Theory and Decision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory and Decision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall, C. (2005). Comment on “Abrupt and gradual extinction among Late Permian land vertebrates in the Karoo basin, South Africa.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5727), 1413; author reply 1413.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruskov, R., & Tahan, C. (2014). Quantum Processing. Catching the quantum sound wave. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6206), 165–166.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferguson, N. M., Donnelly, C. A., & Anderson, R. M. (2001). The foot-and-mouth epidemic in Great Britain: pattern of spread and impact of interventions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5519), 1155–1160.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, H., Linke, W. A., Oberhauser, A. F., Carrion-Vazquez, M., Kerkvliet, J. G., Lu, H., et al. (2002). Reverse engineering of the giant muscle protein titin. Nature, 418(6901), 998–1002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Girling, P. (2013). Operational Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hannula, M. S. (2016). Attitudes, Beliefs, Motivation and Identity in Mathematics Education: An Overview of the Field and Future Directions. (P. Di Martino, M. Pantziara, Q. Zhang, F. Morselli, E. Heyd-Metzuyanim, S. Lutovac, et al., Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Friis, C., Karlsson, C., & Paulsson, T. (2006). Relating Entrepreneurship to Economic Growth. In B. Johansson, C. Karlsson, & R. Stough (Eds.), The Emerging Digital Economy: Entrepreneurship, Clusters, and Policy (pp. 83–111). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory and Decision.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, August 18). Alaskan Town Set To Become First Community In The US To Relocate Due To Climate Change. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Federal Funds Misused by the School System in Trimble County, Kentucky (No. B-164031(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Savage, F. (2014). Effect of Dry-Wet Cycles on Fracture Propagation in Shale and Gas Production Mechanism (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, September 25). Mets Bombard Phillies Before Starting Trip to End Season, or Extend It. New York Times, p. D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marshall 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Marshall 2005; Ruskov and Tahan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ruskov and Tahan 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory and Decision
AbbreviationTheory Decis.
ISSN (print)0040-5833
ISSN (online)1573-7187
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computer Science Applications
General Decision Sciences
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance
Applied Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology
General Social Sciences

Other styles