How to format your references using the Theory and Decision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory and Decision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solow, A. R. (2013). Global warming: A call for peace on climate and conflict. Nature, 497(7448), 179–180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohrer, F., & Berresheim, H. (2006). Strong correlation between levels of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals and solar ultraviolet radiation. Nature, 442(7099), 184–187.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kartal, B., Kuenen, J. G., & van Loosdrecht, M. C. M. (2010). Engineering. Sewage treatment with anammox. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5979), 702–703.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nykypanchuk, D., Maye, M. M., van der Lelie, D., & Gang, O. (2008). DNA-guided crystallization of colloidal nanoparticles. Nature, 451(7178), 549–552.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Derbyshire, E. (2011). Nutrition in the Childbearing Years. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
de la Garza-Salazar, J. G., Meneses-Garcia, A., & Arce-Salinas, C. (Eds.). (2013). Inflammatory Breast Cancer. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dea, S. (2008). Hume, Spinoza and the Achilles Inference. In T. M. Lennon & R. J. Stainton (Eds.), The Achilles of Rationalist Psychology (pp. 93–113). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory and Decision.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 22). Women Preferred For STEM Professorships – As Long As They’re Equal To Or Better Than Male Candidates. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Customs Service Modernization: Impact of New Trade Compliance Strategy Needs to Be Assessed (No. GGD-00-23). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward, C. S. (2012). Movin’ Around (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., & Alter, A. (2016, October 17). Ever Reticent, Nobel Laureate Dylan Maintains Silence. New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Solow 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Rohrer and Berresheim 2006; Solow 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rohrer and Berresheim 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Nykypanchuk et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory and Decision
AbbreviationTheory Decis.
ISSN (print)0040-5833
ISSN (online)1573-7187
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computer Science Applications
General Decision Sciences
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance
Applied Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology
General Social Sciences

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