How to format your references using the Journal of Tropical Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Tropical Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
ALFORD, M. H. 2003. Redistribution of energy available for ocean mixing by long-range propagation of internal waves. Nature 423:159–162.
A journal article with 2 authors
STAGON, S. P. & HUANG, H. 2013. Airtight metallic sealing at room temperature under small mechanical pressure. Scientific reports 3:3066.
A journal article with 3 authors
MOORE, G. W. K., HOLDSWORTH, G. & ALVERSON, K. 2002. Climate change in the North Pacific region over the past three centuries. Nature 420:401–403.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
WATANABE, N., WANG, Y.-H., LEE, H. K., ITO, T., WANG, Y.-H., CAO, W. & LIU, Y.-J. 2005. Hassall’s corpuscles instruct dendritic cells to induce CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in human thymus. Nature 436:1181–1185.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MCCRARY, S. A. 2010. Mastering Corporate Finance Essentials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
SAHA, P. K., MAULIK, U. & BASU, S. (Eds.). 2014. Advanced Computational Approaches to Biomedical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. XII, 217 p. 100 illus., 76 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
WILDING, J. P. H. 2008. Intestinal lipase inhibitors. Pp. 47–57 in Wilding, J. P. H. (ed.). Pharmacotherapy of Obesity. Birkhäuser, Basel.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Tropical Ecology.

Blog post
ANDREW, E. 2015, July 1. How Yersinia Pestis Evolved its Ability to Kill Millions via Pneumonic Plague. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1990. Airline Competition: Higher Fares and Reduced Competition at Concentrated Airports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
WONNACOTT, C. J. 2017. Ambiguity in Theory and Neutrality in Practice: The Allied Intervention and the American Expeditionary Force in Siberia. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KELLY, J. 1979, July 29. When the Mill Pulled the Rub Out From Under Yonkers. New York Times:Westchester WeeklyWC15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alford 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Alford 2003, Stagon & Huang 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stagon & Huang 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Watanabe et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Tropical Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Trop. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0266-4674
ISSN (online)1469-7831
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles