How to format your references using the Journal of Tropical Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Tropical Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MALAKOFF, D. 2000. EARTH-MONITORING SATELLITES: Will the U.S. Bring Down the Curtain on Landsat? Science (New York, N.Y.) 288:2309–2311.
A journal article with 2 authors
THOMPSON, J. L. & SHUTTLEWORTH, T. J. 2013. How many Orai’s does it take to make a CRAC channel? Scientific reports 3:1961.
A journal article with 3 authors
SCHÖN, J. H., KLOC, C. & BATLOGG, B. 2001. High-temperature superconductivity in lattice-expanded C60. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293:2432–2434.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
HAGAI, T., CHEN, X., MIRAGAIA, R. J., ROSTOM, R., GOMES, T., KUNOWSKA, N., HENRIKSSON, J., PARK, J.-E., PROSERPIO, V., DONATI, G., BOSSINI-CASTILLO, L., VIEIRA BRAGA, F. A., NAAMATI, G., FLETCHER, J., STEPHENSON, E., VEGH, P., TRYNKA, G., KONDOVA, I., DENNIS, M., HANIFFA, M., NOURMOHAMMAD, A., LÄSSIG, M. & TEICHMANN, S. A. 2018. Gene expression variability across cells and species shapes innate immunity. Nature 563:197–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
SOUTHARD, T. E., MARSHALL, S. D. & BONNER, L. L. 2015. Orthodontics in the Vertical Dimension. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
BAILEY, D. H. 2016. Pi: The Next Generation: A Sourcebook on the Recent History of Pi and Its Computation. P. (J. M. Borwein, Ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham. XIV, 507 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
DUNBAR, P., EBLÉ, M., MUNGOV, G., MCCULLOUGH, H. & HARRIS, E. 2014. NOAA’s Historical Tsunami Event Database, Raw and Processed Water Level Data, and Model Output Relevant to the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Pp. 113–127 in Kontar, Y. A., Santiago-Fandiño, V. & Takahashi, T. (eds.). Tsunami Events and Lessons Learned: Environmental and Societal Significance. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Tropical Ecology.

Blog post
O`CALLAGHAN, J. 2017, March 8. Study Finds No Long-Term Effects Of Violent Video Games On Empathy. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 2001. USDA Electronic Filing: Progress Made, But Central Leadership and Comprehensive Implementation Plan Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
RUNYAN, T. E. 2017. A Machine Learning Approach to Quantifying Likely Locations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Accumulation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KELLY, S. 2001, May 20. Still Huffing, Still Puffing. New York Times:720.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malakoff 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Malakoff 2000, Thompson & Shuttleworth 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson & Shuttleworth 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hagai et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Tropical Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Trop. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0266-4674
ISSN (online)1469-7831
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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