How to format your references using the Journal of Tropical Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Tropical Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
OHMAN, A. 2005. Psychology. Conditioned fear of a face: a prelude to ethnic enmity? Science (New York, N.Y.) 309:711–713.
A journal article with 2 authors
LI, G. & LUO, Z.-X. 2006. A Cretaceous symmetrodont therian with some monotreme-like postcranial features. Nature 439:195–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
YU, D., WANG, C. & GUYOT-SIONNEST, P. 2003. n-Type conducting CdSe nanocrystal solids. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300:1277–1280.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
SMITH, A. H., LOPIPERO, P. A., BATES, M. N. & STEINMAUS, C. M. 2002. Public health. Arsenic epidemiology and drinking water standards. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296:2145–2146.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
TABER, D. F. 2006. Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
BUSSLER, C., CASTELLANOS, M., DAYAL, U. & NAVATHE, S. (Eds.). 2007. Business Intelligence for the Real-Time Enterprises: First International Workshop, BIRTE 2006, Seoul, Korea, September 11, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. IX, 157 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
HAVA, D. & KWOK-BUN, C. 2012. Methodological Operations. Pp. 55–73 in Kwok-bun, C. (ed.). Charismatic Leadership in Singapore: Three Extraordinary People. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Tropical Ecology.

Blog post
HALE, T. 2017, February 2. Another Newly Discovered Asteroid Will Fly By Earth Tonight. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 2007. Bankruptcy Reform: Value of Credit Counseling Requirement Is Not Clear. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
PREJEAN, K. D. 2015. An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in Texas Public Schools: Race, School District Size, Academic Performance, and Policy Influences. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
BENNHOLD, K. & DE LA MERCED, M. J. 2017, October 3. Uber Leader, in Visit to London, Appeals to Regain Operating License. New York Times:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ohman 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Ohman 2005, Li & Luo 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li & Luo 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Tropical Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Trop. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0266-4674
ISSN (online)1469-7831
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles