How to format your references using the Optical Fiber Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Fiber Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.M. Lieberman, Virology. Epstein-Barr virus turns 50, Science. 343 (2014) 1323–1325.
A journal article with 2 authors
W.A. Lopes, H.M. Jaeger, Hierarchical self-assembly of metal nanostructures on diblock copolymer scaffolds, Nature. 414 (2001) 735–738.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.C. McLaughlin, F. Sher, J.P. Attfield, Negative lattice expansion from the superconductivity--antiferromagnetism crossover in ruthenium copper oxides, Nature. 436 (2005) 829–832.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.P. Borgatti, A. Mehra, D.J. Brass, G. Labianca, Network analysis in the social sciences, Science. 323 (2009) 892–895.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.W. Sue, Overcoming Our Racism, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2003.
An edited book
G.F. Knolmayer, Supply Chain Management Based on SAP Systems: Architecture and Planning Processes, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
N. El Islem Karabadji, S. Aridhi, H. Seridi, A Closed Frequent Subgraph Mining Algorithm in Unique Edge Label Graphs, in: P. Perner (Ed.), Machine Learning and Data Mining in Pattern Recognition: 12th International Conference, MLDM 2016, New York, NY, USA, July 16-21, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 43–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Fiber Technology.

Blog post
J. Fang, New Research Reveals The US Cities That Have Already Been Doomed By Climate Change, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: TSA’s Change to Its Prohibited Items List Has Not Resulted in Any Reported Security Incidents, but the Impact of the Change on Screening Operations Is Inconclusive, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Brothers, Nonparametric regression using wavelet transformations and noise reduction in audio signals, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Z. Woolfe, Once Rebels, Now Institutions, New York Times. (2017) C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Fiber Technology
AbbreviationOpt. Fiber Technol.
ISSN (print)1068-5200
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

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