How to format your references using the Optical Fiber Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Fiber Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Huybers, Combined obliquity and precession pacing of late Pleistocene deglaciations, Nature. 480 (2011) 229–232.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Sagarin, F. Micheli, Climate change in nontraditional data sets, Science. 294 (2001) 811.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.D. Behn, G. Hirth, P.B. Kelemen, Trench-parallel anisotropy produced by foundering of arc lower crust, Science. 317 (2007) 108–111.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Im, D. Jeong, J. Hur, S.-J. Kim, S. Hwang, K.S. Jin, N. Park, K. Kim, Robust analysis of synthetic label-free DNA junctions in solution by X-ray scattering and molecular simulation, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.M. Bolstad, Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
C.Y. Cheng, ed., Molecular Mechanisms in Spermatogenesis, Springer, New York, NY, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Mohr, G. Zachmann, Silhouette Area Based Similarity Measure for Template Matching in Constant Time, in: F.J. Perales, R.B. Fisher (Eds.), Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects: 6th International Conference, AMDO 2010, Port d’Andratx, Mallorca, Spain, July 7-9, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Fiber Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Reptiles That Delay Sex And Kids Live Longer, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Query Concerning FY 1985 Authorization Levels for Department of Education Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Lutchman, Leadership impact on turnover among power engineers in the Oil Sands of Alberta, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Kanter, U.S. Briefs E.U. on Fears Over Laptops on Flights, New York Times. (2017) A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Fiber Technology
AbbreviationOpt. Fiber Technol.
ISSN (print)1068-5200
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

Other styles