How to format your references using the Earth-Observations-X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth-Observations-X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meselson, M., 2012. Retrospective. Paul Mead Doty (1920-2011). Science 335, 181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bensinger, S.J., Tontonoz, P., 2008. Integration of metabolism and inflammation by lipid-activated nuclear receptors. Nature 454, 470–477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, S., Bai, M., Wang, L., 2013. General and facile surface functionalization of hydrophobic nanocrystals with poly(amino acid) for cell luminescence imaging. Sci. Rep. 3, 2023.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tegze, M., Faigel, G., Marchesini, S., Belakhovsky, M., Ulrich, O., 2000. Imaging light atoms by X-ray holography. Nature 407, 38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundar, V., 2015. Ocean Wave Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Acquaah, M. (Ed.), 2016. Family Businesses in Sub-Saharan Africa: Behavioral and Strategic Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Okitsu, K., 2011. Sonochemical Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles, in: Ashokkumar, M. (Ed.), Theoretical and Experimental Sonochemistry Involving Inorganic Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 131–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth-Observations-X.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Meet Dreadnoughtus, the Mesozoic monster that patrolled Argentina 80 million years ago [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Delays in Critical Air Traffic Control Modernization Projects Require Increased FAA Attention to Existing Systems (No. T-IMTEC-91-14). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garbarini, L., 2017. Comparison of the Completion Pathways of Four Categories of Doctoral Students from a Midwestern University (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo, K., 2014. Charting the Journey to Sochi. New York Times TR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meselson, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bensinger and Tontonoz, 2008; Meselson, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bensinger and Tontonoz, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Tegze et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth-Observations-X
ISSN (print)2468-1199

Other styles