How to format your references using the Earth-Observations-X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth-Observations-X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Howard, A.W., 2013. Observed properties of extrasolar planets. Science 340, 572–576.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Z.L., Song, J., 2006. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Science 312, 242–246.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mackenzie, R.B., Dewberry, C.T., Leopold, K.R., 2015. SULFUR CHEMISTRY. Gas phase observation and microwave spectroscopic characterization of formic sulfuric anhydride. Science 349, 58–61.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Boulton, S., Akimoto, M., Selvaratnam, R., Bashiri, A., Melacini, G., 2014. A tool set to map allosteric networks through the NMR chemical shift covariance analysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 7306.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woods, L.C., 2005. Theory of Tokamak Transport. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Devlin, W.J., Bokulich, A. (Eds.), 2015. Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On, Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Conti, N., Memoli, V., 2016. One or Many EUs?, in: Memoli, V. (Ed.), Citizens, Europe and the Media: Have New Media Made Citizens More Eurosceptical? Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 47–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth-Observations-X.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Shortlist For Astronomy Photographer Of The Year 2016 Competition Announced [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. NASA: Major Challenges for Management (No. T-NSIAD-94-18). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gates, D.A., 2017. Best Practices and Strategies for Financial Literacy in Faith-Based Organizations (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. Griffin’s Garden: Jeers and Big-Game Feel Greet High-Profile Visitor. New York Times B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Howard, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Howard, 2013; Wang and Song, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Song, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Boulton et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth-Observations-X
ISSN (print)2468-1199

Other styles