How to format your references using the Earth-Observations-X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth-Observations-X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Netz, R., 2002. Portraits of science. Proof, amazement, and the unexpected. Science 298, 967–968.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouziat, R., Jabri, B., 2015. IMMUNOLOGY. Breaching the gut-vascular barrier. Science 350, 742–743.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kumarevel, T., Mizuno, H., Kumar, P.K.R., 2005. Structural basis of HutP-mediated anti-termination and roles of the Mg2+ ion and L-histidine ligand. Nature 434, 183–191.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zang, J., Cao, C., Feng, Y., Liu, J., Zhao, X., 2014. Stretchable and high-performance supercapacitors with crumpled graphene papers. Sci. Rep. 4, 6492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Searle, S.R., 1997. Linear Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Liu, C., Chang, J., Yang, A. (Eds.), 2011. Information Computing and Applications: Second International Conference, ICICA 2011, Qinhuangdao, China, October 28-31, 2011. Proceedings, Part I, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bishara, A., Liu, Y., Kashef-Haghighi, D., Weng, Z., Newburger, D.E., West, R., Sidow, A., Batzoglou, S., 2015. Read Clouds Uncover Variation in Complex Regions of the Human Genome, in: Przytycka, T.M. (Ed.), Research in Computational Molecular Biology: 19th Annual International Conference, RECOMB 2015, Warsaw, Poland, April 12-15, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 30–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth-Observations-X.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. We Are Now In “Uncharted Territory” As Climate Change Continues Into 2017 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Electronic Disability Claims Processing: SSA Is Proceeding with Its Accelerated Systems Initiative but Needs to Address Operational Issues (No. GAO-05-97). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Konzem, S.R., 2017. Tenability and Computability of Generalized Pólya Urns (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2016. Judge Rejects Justice Dept. Decision on Music Licensing. New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Netz, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bouziat and Jabri, 2015; Netz, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bouziat and Jabri, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Zang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth-Observations-X
ISSN (print)2468-1199

Other styles