How to format your references using the Earth-Observations-X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth-Observations-X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cao, Y.C., 2011. Materials science. Impurities enhance semiconductor nanocrystal performance. Science 332, 48–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hellmann, H., Estelle, M., 2002. Plant development: regulation by protein degradation. Science 297, 793–797.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elias, L.A.B., Wang, D.D., Kriegstein, A.R., 2007. Gap junction adhesion is necessary for radial migration in the neocortex. Nature 448, 901–907.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schultz, T., Samoylova, E., Radloff, W., Hertel, I.V., Sobolewski, A.L., Domcke, W., 2004. Efficient deactivation of a model base pair via excited-state hydrogen transfer. Science 306, 1765–1768.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martindale, W., 2014. Global Food Security and Supply. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Schulte-Werning, B., Thompson, D., Gautier, P.-E., Hanson, C., Hemsworth, B., Nelson, J., Maeda, T., Vos, P. de (Eds.), 2008. Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Railway Noise, Munich, Germany, 4 - 8 September 2007, Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kouretas, I., Paliouras, V., 2011. Residue Arithmetic for Designing Low-Power Multiply-Add Units, in: Leuken, R. van, Sicard, G. (Eds.), Integrated Circuit and System Design. Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization, and Simulation: 20th International Workshop, PATMOS 2010, Grenoble, France, September 7-10, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth-Observations-X.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. The Physics Of Totally And Utterly Destroying The Universe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Environmental Protection: Bibliography of GAO Documents, August 1988-April 1990 (No. RCED-90-228). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McAvoy, D.L., 2012. Coming of age with Shakespeare: The convergence of American youth culture and high culture since the 1980s (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R., 2017. Forget the Arias. Check Out That 3-D. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cao, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cao, 2011; Hellmann and Estelle, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hellmann and Estelle, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Schultz et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth-Observations-X
ISSN (print)2468-1199

Other styles