How to format your references using the Earth-Observations-X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth-Observations-X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCarty, M., 2003. Discovering genes are made of DNA. Nature 421, 406.
A journal article with 2 authors
DellaPenna, D., O’Connor, S.E., 2012. Plant science. Plant gene clusters and opiates. Science 336, 1648–1649.
A journal article with 3 authors
Omabegho, T., Sha, R., Seeman, N.C., 2009. A bipedal DNA Brownian motor with coordinated legs. Science 324, 67–71.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rappuoli, R., Del Giudice, G., Nabel, G.J., Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., Robinson, R., Salisbury, D., Stöhr, K., Treanor, J.J., 2009. Public health. Rethinking influenza. Science 326, 50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peterson, R.L., Murtha, F.F., 2010. MarketPsych. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tang, C., Ling, C.X., Zhou, X., Cercone, N.J., Li, X. (Eds.), 2008. Advanced Data Mining and Applications: 4th International Conference, ADMA 2008, Chengdu, China, October 8-10, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Arioka, K., Miyamoto, T., Yamada, T., Terachi, T., 2016. Role of Cavity Formation on Crack Growth of Cold-Worked Carbon Steel, TT 690 and MA 600 in High Temperature Water, in: Busby, J.T., Ilevbare, G., Andresen, P.L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems — Water Reactors. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth-Observations-X.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Produce from the World’s First Underground Urban Farm is About to Hit Shelves [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Changes Needed in Administering Relief to Industries Hurt by Overseas Competition (No. ID-81-42). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perelygin, K., 2012. Developing physics simulations with OpenCL on a graphics processing unit (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J., 2016. Views Conflict on Exxon Mobil’s Ties to Those Who Reject Climate Science. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCarty, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (DellaPenna and O’Connor, 2012; McCarty, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DellaPenna and O’Connor, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Rappuoli et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth-Observations-X
ISSN (print)2468-1199

Other styles