How to format your references using the Earth-Observations-X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth-Observations-X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gordon, P., 2004. Numerical cognition without words: evidence from Amazonia. Science 306, 496–499.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boguski, M.S., McIntosh, M.W., 2003. Biomedical informatics for proteomics. Nature 422, 233–237.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richards-Dinger, K., Stein, R.S., Toda, S., 2010. Decay of aftershock density with distance does not indicate triggering by dynamic stress. Nature 467, 583–586.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bower, G.C., Falcke, H., Herrnstein, R.M., Zhao, J.-H., Goss, W.M., Backer, D.C., 2004. Detection of the intrinsic size of Sagittarius A* through closure amplitude imaging. Science 304, 704–708.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hagen, J., 2017. Chemiereaktoren. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Carayannis, E.G., 2012. Institutional Learning and Knowledge Transfer Across Epistemic Communities: New Tools of Global Governance, Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Oderda, M., Gontero, P., 2013. Swollen and/or Painful Scrotum, in: Gontero, P., Kirby, R.S., Carson, C.C., III (Eds.), Problem Based Urology. Springer, London, pp. 29–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth-Observations-X.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2015. Male Seahorse Gives Birth To Babies Like An Underwater Shotgun [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Freight Railroad Safety: Results of Rail Industry Survey about Hours of Service Issues (GAO-11-894SP, September 2011), an E-supplement to GAO-11-853 (No. GAO-11-894SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nasrollahzadeh, Y., 2013. Support group for caregivers of older adults affected by dementia: A grant proposal project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stephens, J., 2017. Secrets of the Metropolis. New York Times BR21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gordon, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Boguski and McIntosh, 2003; Gordon, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boguski and McIntosh, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Bower et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth-Observations-X
ISSN (print)2468-1199

Other styles