How to format your references using the Earth-Observations-X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth-Observations-X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crickmore, M.A., 2009. GE Prize essay. The molecular basis of size differences. Science 326, 1360–1361.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dziarmaga, J., Zurek, W.H., 2014. Quench in the 1D Bose-Hubbard model: topological defects and excitations from the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition dynamics. Sci. Rep. 4, 5950.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Roy, P., Daley, A.C., Briggs, D.E.G., 2015. Anomalocaridid trunk limb homology revealed by a giant filter-feeder with paired flaps. Nature 522, 77–80.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Slanger, T.G., Cosby, P.C., Huestis, D.L., Bida, T.A., 2001. Discovery of the atomic oxygen green line in the Venus night airglow. Science 291, 463–465.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones, D.W., 2014. Economic Theory and the Ancient Mediterranean. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Paschen, M., 2014. The Psychology of Human Leadership: How To Develop Charisma and Authority. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sandkuhl, K., Stirna, J., Persson, A., Wißotzki, M., 2014. Elicitation Approaches in Enterprise Modeling, in: Stirna, J., Persson, A., Wißotzki, M. (Eds.), Enterprise Modeling: Tackling Business Challenges with the 4EM Method, The Enterprise Engineering Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 39–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth-Observations-X.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Video Of A Mock Occult Ritual At CERN Circulates Online [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Electromagnetic Interference with Medical Devices (No. RCED-95-96R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Evans, B., 2013. An integrated program for homeless adults with co-occurring mental and subtance use disorders: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J., 2016. Penn Station Inhabitant Gets a Home of Her Own. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crickmore, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Crickmore, 2009; Dziarmaga and Zurek, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dziarmaga and Zurek, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Slanger et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth-Observations-X
ISSN (print)2468-1199

Other styles