How to format your references using the Earth-Observations-X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth-Observations-X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holz, R.W., 2013. Cell biology. Dynamin flexibility drives fission. Science 339, 1392–1393.
A journal article with 2 authors
Postma, E., van Noordwijk, A.J., 2005. Gene flow maintains a large genetic difference in clutch size at a small spatial scale. Nature 433, 65–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shah, A.K., Mullainathan, S., Shafir, E., 2012. Some consequences of having too little. Science 338, 682–685.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D’Costa, V.M., McGrann, K.M., Hughes, D.W., Wright, G.D., 2006. Sampling the antibiotic resistome. Science 311, 374–377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthold, H.J., Binnewies, M., 2005. Chemisches Grundpraktikum. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Jensen, W., Andersen, O.K., Akay, M. (Eds.), 2014. Replace, Repair, Restore, Relieve – Bridging Clinical and Engineering Solutions in Neurorehabilitation: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation (ICNR2014), Aalborg, 24-26 June, 2014, Biosystems & Biorobotics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Carrera, Á., Iglesias, C.A., 2012. Improving Diagnosis Agents with Hybrid Hypotheses Confirmation Reasoning Techniques, in: Cossentino, M., Kaisers, M., Tuyls, K., Weiss, G. (Eds.), Multi-Agent Systems: 9th European Workshop, EUMAS 2011, Maastricht, The Netherlands, November 14-15, 2011. Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 48–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth-Observations-X.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. First Ever Private Launch Site for Orbital Rockets Could be in New Zealand [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Software Licenses: DOD’s Plan to Collect Inventory Data Meets Statutory Requirements (No. GAO-14-625). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bigler, W.H., 2010. Increased substance abuse treatment for adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. On When They Met, and Those Vacancies. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holz, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Holz, 2013; Postma and van Noordwijk, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Postma and van Noordwijk, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (D’Costa et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth-Observations-X
ISSN (print)2468-1199

Other styles