How to format your references using the Earth-Observations-X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth-Observations-X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Müller, R.D., 2010. Geophysics. Sedimentary basins feeling the heat from below. Science 329, 769–770.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sundquist, W.I., Ullman, K.S., 2015. CELL BIOLOGY. An ESCRT to seal the envelope. Science 348, 1314–1315.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bristow, C.S., Bailey, S.D., Lancaster, N., 2000. The sedimentary structure of linear sand dunes. Nature 406, 56–59.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hua, Y., Zhu, M., Wang, Y., Xie, Z., Li, M., 2014. A hybrid method for identification of structural domains. Sci. Rep. 4, 7476.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wood, J., Brown, W., Howe, H., 2013. IT Auditing and Application Controls for Small and Mid-Sized Enterprises. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hakeem, K.R. (Ed.), 2015. Crop Production and Global Environmental Issues. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Menikoff, R., 2007. Elastic–Plastic Shock Waves, in: Horie, Y. (Ed.), ShockWave Science and Technology Reference Library. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 189–224.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth-Observations-X.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Did Planet Nine Give The Solar System Its Tilt? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Federal Student Loans: Flexible Agreements with Guaranty Agencies Warrant Careful Evaluation (No. GAO-02-254). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanford, C.J., 2008. Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating biosensors (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. The Week; LIPA Ponders Fate of Wind Farm as Costs Rise. New York Times 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Müller, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Müller, 2010; Sundquist and Ullman, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sundquist and Ullman, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hua et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth-Observations-X
ISSN (print)2468-1199

Other styles