How to format your references using the Optical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. H. Steneck, “Research ethics. Global research integrity training,” Science 340(6132), 552–553 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
K. A. Fitzgerald and D. T. Golenbock, “Immunology. The shape of things to come,” Science 316(5831), 1574–1576 (2007).
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Xu, P. Cao, and J. R. Heath, “Graphene visualizes the first water adlayers on mica at ambient conditions,” Science 329(5996), 1188–1191 (2010).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O. Rawashdeh et al., “Melatonin suppresses nighttime memory formation in zebrafish,” Science 318(5853), 1144–1146 (2007).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. J. Ippolito Jr., Satellite Communications Systems Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2017).
An edited book
I. V. Sergienko, Optimal Control of Distributed Systems with Conjugation Conditions, V. S. Deineka and N. Z. Shor, Eds., Springer US, Boston, MA (2005).
A chapter in an edited book
F. L. Holmes, “Experimental Systems, Investigative Pathways, and the Nature of Discovery,” in Models of Discovery and Creativity, J. Meheus and T. Nickles, Eds., pp. 65–79, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2009).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Scientists Convert Human Skin Cells Into Pain Sensing Nerves,” IFLScience, 4 December 2014 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Report on Evaluation of Lapsize Computers,” 128117, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1985).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. N. Henning, “Top ten effective community college board trustees self-perceived leadership attributes,” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. R. Gordon, “How the President Wrongly Blamed The Times for a Terrorist’s Survival,” in New York Times, p. A11 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Engineering
AbbreviationOpt. Eng.
ISSN (print)0091-3286
ISSN (online)1560-2303
ScopeGeneral Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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