How to format your references using the ACS Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACS Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toby, S. The Good and the Bad. Nature 2001, 410 (6828), 523.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, P.; Parkhurst, S. M. Development. May the Force Be with You. Science 2003, 300 (5616), 63–65.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hampshire, A.; MacDonald, A.; Owen, A. M. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2972.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhou, X.-J.; Qi, Y.-Y.; Hou, P.; Lv, J.-C.; Shi, S.-F.; Liu, L.-J.; Zhao, N.; Zhang, H. Cumulative Effects of Variants Identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies in IgA Nephropathy. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4904.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Unmehopa, M.; Vemuri, K.; Bennett, A. Parlay/OSA; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
Advances in Machine Vision, Image Processing, and Pattern Analysis: International Workshop on Intelligent Computing in Pattern Analysis/Synthesis, IWICPAS 2006 Xi’an, China, August 26-27, 2006 Proceedings; Zheng, N., Jiang, X., Lan, X., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; Vol. 4153.
A chapter in an edited book
Sollazzo, R.; Sanges, M. The Second Brain and Possible Interactions with the Heart. In Psychotherapy for Ischemic Heart Disease: An Evidence-based Clinical Approach; Roncella, A., Pristipino, C., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp 59–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACS Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Fang, J. Brown Bears Enjoy Oral Sex (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Emergency Transit Assistance: Federal Funding for Recent Disasters, and Options for the Future; GAO-08-243; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dzubaty, D. R. Understanding the Undergraduate Experience of the Baccalaureate Nursing Student with English as an Additional Language. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Philipps, D. ‘I Would Love for My President to Meet Me.’ New York Times. July 26, 2017, p A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleACS Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationACS Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)2373-8227

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