How to format your references using the ACS Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACS Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, E. Bricks and Mortar. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Nature 2004, 431 (7010), 882.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kristensen, P.; Bjerkedal, T. Explaining the Relation between Birth Order and Intelligence. Science 2007, 316 (5832), 1717.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ioannou, C. C.; Guttal, V.; Couzin, I. D. Predatory Fish Select for Coordinated Collective Motion in Virtual Prey. Science 2012, 337 (6099), 1212–1215.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Williams, K. A.; Veenhuizen, P. T. M.; de la Torre, B. G.; Eritja, R.; Dekker, C. Nanotechnology: Carbon Nanotubes with DNA Recognition. Nature 2002, 420 (6917), 761.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dexter, A. L. Monitoring and Control of Information-Poor Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Secure Data Management: Third VLDB Workshop, SDM 2006, Seoul, Korea, September 10-11, 2006. Proceedings; Jonker, W., Petković, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; Vol. 4165.
A chapter in an edited book
Stolier, A. Surgical Considerations in Partial Breast Irradiation. In Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Techniques and Clinical Implementation; Wazer, D. E., Arthur, D. W., Vicini, F. A., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp 59–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACS Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Wet Asteroids Brought Water To A Magma-Covered Ancient Moon. IFLScience. (accessed 2018-10-30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Inadequacies in Data Processing Planning in the Department of Commerce; FGMSD-78-27; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Geist, C. The Marriage Economy: Examining the Economic Impact and the Context of Marriage in Comparative Perspective. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman, J. L. How the Writer Cathy Salustri Found ‘Old Flordia.’ New York Times. January 12, 2017, p TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleACS Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationACS Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)2373-8227

Other styles