How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bers DM: Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Nature 2002;415:198–205.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang H-L, Lai TW: Optimization of Evans blue quantitation in limited rat tissue samples. Sci Rep 2014;4:6588.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang JY, Liu G, Sun J: Crystallization-aided extraordinary plastic deformation in nanolayered crystalline Cu/amorphous Cu-Zr micropillars. Sci Rep 2013;3:2324.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boon J-P, Casti J, Djerassi C, Johnson J, Lovett A, Norretranders T, et al.: A concrete example. Nature 2006;444:122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holmes JD: Great Myths of Education and Learning. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2016.
An edited book
Habu J, Fawcett C, Matsunaga JM (eds): Evaluating Multiple Narratives: Beyond Nationalist, Colonialist, Imperialist Archaeologies. New York, NY, Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Küster U, Resch MM: Hardware Development and Impact on Numerical Algorithms; in Krause E, Shokin YI, Resch M, Shokina N (eds): Computational Science and High Performance Computing III: The 3rd Russian-German Advanced Research Workshop, Novosibirsk, Russia, July 23 - 27, 2007. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2008, pp 44–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Research.

Blog post
Andrew E: In The Push For Marketable Skills, Are We Forgetting The Beauty And Poetry Of STEM Disciplines? IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Activities of Washington Data Processing Center Statistical Research Service. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stahl-Kovell DW: Reimagining red power: Native American community, activism, and academics in postwar America 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B: A Romance With Long Distances. New York Times 2017;C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Research
AbbreviationOphthalmic Res.
ISSN (print)0030-3747
ISSN (online)1423-0259
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Sensory Systems

Other styles