How to format your references using the Archives of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zweibel K. Engineering. The impact of tellurium supply on cadmium telluride photovoltaics. Science. 2010;328(5979):699-701.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferrara N, Kerbel RS. Angiogenesis as a therapeutic target. Nature. 2005;438(7070):967-974.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eerenstein W, Mathur ND, Scott JF. Multiferroic and magnetoelectric materials. Nature. 2006;442(7104):759-765.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Elbaum R, Zaltzman L, Burgert I, Fratzl P. The role of wheat awns in the seed dispersal unit. Science. 2007;316(5826):884-886.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chang CM. Service Systems Management and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Pikkarainen M, Codenie W, Boucart N, Heredia Alvaro JA, eds. The Art of Software Innovation: Eight Practice Areas to Inspire Your Business. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Hannah KJ, Ball MJ, Edwards MJA. Enterprise Health Information Systems. In: Ball MJ, Edwards MJA, eds. Introduction to Nursing Informatics. Health Informatics. Springer; 2006:57-83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Brains Work Via Their Genes Just As Much As Their Neurons. IFLScience. Published October 18, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tactical Airlift: Observations Concerning the Air Force’s C-27 Proposal. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quiros PQ. SNR Estimation and Jamming Detection Techniques Using Wavelets. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Forsythe M. A Missing Tycoon’s Links to Dalian Wanda, China’s Troubled Conglomerate. New York Times. August 10, 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationArch. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0003-9950
ISSN (online)1538-3601

Other styles