How to format your references using the Archives of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bonetta L. Protein purification: target identification. Nature. 2006;439(7079):1021.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Xiong W, Ferrell JE Jr. A positive-feedback-based bistable “memory module” that governs a cell fate decision. Nature. 2003;426(6965):460-465.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Kikushima K, Kita S, Higuchi H. A non-invasive imaging for the in vivo tracking of high-speed vesicle transport in mouse neutrophils. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1913.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ho PK, Kim JS, Burroughes JH, et al. Molecular-scale interface engineering for polymer light-emitting diodes. Nature. 2000;404(6777):481-484.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lindahl D. Multi-Family Millions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Bra PD, Kobsa A, Chin D, eds. User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personalization: 18th International Conference, UMAP 2010, Big Island, HI, USA, June 20-24, 2010. Proceedings. Vol 6075. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Grinin L, Korotayev A. Afterword: The Great Convergence and Possible Increase in Global Instability, or the World Without an Absolute Leader. In: Korotayev A, ed. Great Divergence and Great Convergence: A Global Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:159-166.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Einstein Vs Quantum Mechanics ... And Why He’d Be A Convert Today. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/physics/einstein-vs-quantum-mechanics-and-why-he’d-be-convert-today/. Published July 9, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. University Funding: Information on the Role of Peer Review at NSF and NIH. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Garcia RI. Variable selection for models with missing data. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Shear MD. Democratic Coalition Plans Attacks on G.O.P. Over Health Care Law. New York Times. September 5, 2017:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationArch. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0003-9950
ISSN (online)1538-3601
ScopeOphthalmology

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