How to format your references using the Archives of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lin H. piRNAs in the germ line. Science. 2007;316(5823):397.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eisenstein JP, Macdonald AH. Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons in bilayer electron systems. Nature. 2004;432(7018):691-694.
A journal article with 3 authors
Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, O’Brien SJ. Genomics. Mmu 16--comparative genomic highlights. Science. 2002;296(5573):1617-1618.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brashares JS, Arcese P, Sam MK, Coppolillo PB, Sinclair ARE, Balmford A. Bushmeat hunting, wildlife declines, and fish supply in West Africa. Science. 2004;306(5699):1180-1183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kharmanda G, El Hami A. Reliability in Biomechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Pérez Cañado ML, ed. Competency-Based Language Teaching in Higher Education. Vol 14. Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Lehký D, Šomodíková M. Reliability Analysis of Post-Tensioned Bridge Using Artificial Neural Network-Based Surrogate Model. In: Iliadis L, Jayne C, eds. Engineering Applications of Neural Networks: 16th International Conference, EANN 2015, Rhodes, Greece, September 25-28 2015.Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer International Publishing; 2015:35-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Fang J. Researchers Discover Off Switch for Ageing Cells. IFLScience. Published September 24, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. IRS Website: Long-Term Strategy Needed to Improve Interactive Services. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young JL. A community college’s loss of accreditation: A case study. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Some Chafe at Rules Meant to Protect Youngest Girls. New York Times. September 11, 2017:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationArch. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0003-9950
ISSN (online)1538-3601

Other styles