How to format your references using the Applied Network Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Network Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mejia R (2008) Taking the industry road. Nature 453:1138–1139
A journal article with 2 authors
Tobias DJ, Hemminger JC (2008) Chemistry. Getting specific about specific ion effects. Science 319:1197–1198
A journal article with 3 authors
Marinova MM, Aharonson O, Asphaug E (2008) Mega-impact formation of the Mars hemispheric dichotomy. Nature 453:1216–1219
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Coull JAM, Boudreau D, Bachand K, et al (2003) Trans-synaptic shift in anion gradient in spinal lamina I neurons as a mechanism of neuropathic pain. Nature 424:938–942

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parker D (2011) Global Real Estate Investment Trusts. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Purkayastha J (ed) (2016) Bioprospecting of Indigenous Bioresources of North-East India. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Thevenot J, Chen J, Finnilä M, et al (2015) Local Binary Patterns to Evaluate Trabecular Bone Structure from Micro-CT Data: Application to Studies of Human Osteoarthritis. In: Agapito L, Bronstein MM, Rother C (eds) Computer Vision - ECCV 2014 Workshops: Zurich, Switzerland, September 6-7 and 12, 2014, Proceedings, Part II. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 63–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Network Science.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) This Robot Is Controlled Through Human Brain Waves. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Air Traffic Control: FAA Reports Progress in System Acquisitions, but Changes in Performance Measurement Could Improve Usefulness of Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brothers J (2009) Nonparametric regression using wavelet transformations and noise reduction in audio signals. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Cooper M (2012) Gloomy Forecast for States, Even if Economy Rebounds. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mejia 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Tobias and Hemminger 2008; Mejia 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tobias and Hemminger 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Coull et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Network Science
AbbreviationAppl. Netw. Sci.
ISSN (online)2364-8228

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