How to format your references using the Applied Network Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Network Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collier RJ (2010) Microbiology. Salmonella’s safety catch. Science 328:981–982
A journal article with 2 authors
Madin JS, Connolly SR (2006) Ecological consequences of major hydrodynamic disturbances on coral reefs. Nature 444:477–480
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi M, Hong N, Hong Y (2009) Generation of medaka fish haploid embryonic stem cells. Science 326:430–433
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Horng T, Barton GM, Flavell RA, Medzhitov R (2002) The adaptor molecule TIRAP provides signalling specificity for Toll-like receptors. Nature 420:329–333

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pasher E, Ronen T (2011) The Complete Guide to Knowledge Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Di Fatta G, Fortino G, Li W, et al (eds) (2015) Internet and Distributed Computing Systems: 8th International Conference, IDCS 2015, Windsor, UK, September 2-4, 2015. Proceedings, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Kim R, Albert LR (2015) Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics Category I: Mathematics Curriculum Knowledge. In: Albert LR (ed) Mathematics Teaching and Learning: South Korean Elementary Teachers’ Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 63–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Network Science.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) NASA Solves The Andromeda X-Ray Mystery. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) B-2 Bomber: Contract Structure and Selected Provisions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lintott RW (2010) The manipulation of time perception in John Adams’s “Doctor Atomic.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J (2016) Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times MM26

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Collier 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Madin and Connolly 2006; Collier 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Madin and Connolly 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Horng et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Network Science
AbbreviationAppl. Netw. Sci.
ISSN (online)2364-8228

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