How to format your references using the Applied Network Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Network Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pulverer B (2000) Signal transduction. An arresting tale. Nature 404:714
A journal article with 2 authors
Feng Y, Krumholz MR (2014) Early turbulent mixing as the origin of chemical homogeneity in open star clusters. Nature 513:523–525
A journal article with 3 authors
Chookajorn T, Murdoch HA, Schuh CA (2012) Design of stable nanocrystalline alloys. Science 337:951–954
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pasupathy AN, Pushp A, Gomes KK, et al (2008) Electronic origin of the inhomogeneous pairing interaction in the high-Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. Science 320:196–201

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinzinger S, Jahns J (2005) Microoptics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Jackson AC (ed) (2013) Viral Infections of the Human Nervous System. Springer, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Wong PYH, Diakov N, Schaefer I (2012) Modelling Adaptable Distributed Object Oriented Systems Using the HATS Approach: A Fredhopper Case Study. In: Beckert B, Damiani F, Gurov D (eds) Formal Verification of Object-Oriented Software: International Conference, FoVeOOS 2011, Turin, Italy, October 5-7, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 49–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Network Science.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Incredible NASA Animation Shows A Black Hole Destroying A Star. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) NATO-Warsaw Pact: Conventional Force Balance--Papers for U.S. and Soviet Perspectives Workshops. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dulick KC (2010) Self-neglect among the elderly: Knowledge and perceptions of MSW students. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K (2017) Seeking a Shift to Entrepreneurship, Executive Will Leave JPMorgan. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pulverer 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Pulverer 2000; Feng and Krumholz 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Feng and Krumholz 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Pasupathy et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Network Science
AbbreviationAppl. Netw. Sci.
ISSN (online)2364-8228

Other styles