How to format your references using the Applied Network Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Network Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hill GE (2004) Ecology. A head start for some redstarts. Science 306:2201–2202
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Sullivan D, Pearce EL (2015) Immunology. Expanding the role of metabolism in T cells. Science 348:976–977
A journal article with 3 authors
Reichardt BW, Unger F, Vazirani U (2013) Classical command of quantum systems. Nature 496:456–460
A journal article with 5 or more authors
O’Brien CM, Fox CJ, Planque B, Casey J (2000) Climate variability and North Sea cod. Nature 404:142

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belmont DP (2011) Managing Hedge Fund Risk and Financing. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 1 Fusionopolis Walk, #07-01, Solaris South Tower, Singapore 138628
An edited book
Pontarotti P (ed) (2013) Evolutionary Biology: Exobiology and Evolutionary Mechanisms. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Elgazzar AH, Elmonayeri M (2006) Inflammation. In: Elgazzar AH (ed) The Pathophysiologic Basis of Nuclear Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 67–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Network Science.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Researchers Create “General Intelligence” Test For Wild Birds. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Treasury Electronic Signature Concept. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glasgow HL (2015) Design and Selection of Probes for In Vivo Molecular Targeting and Imaging. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2016) Politicians’ Latest Plan to Rescue Puerto Rico Is Met With Disdain. New York Times B5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hill 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hill 2004; O’Sullivan and Pearce 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Sullivan and Pearce 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (O’Brien et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Network Science
AbbreviationAppl. Netw. Sci.
ISSN (online)2364-8228

Other styles