How to format your references using the International Journal of Information Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Information Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuhrman, J. A. (2009). Microbial community structure and its functional implications. Nature, 459(7244), 193–199.
A journal article with 2 authors
van den Heuvel, M. G. L., & Dekker, C. (2007). Motor proteins at work for nanotechnology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5836), 333–336.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeong, K.-H., Kim, J., & Lee, L. P. (2006). Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5773), 557–561.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, K., Titchener, J. G., Kruk, S. S., Xu, L., Chung, H.-P., Parry, M., … Sukhorukov, A. A. (2018). Quantum metasurface for multiphoton interference and state reconstruction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 361(6407), 1104–1108.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul, C. R. (2011). Transmission Lines in Digital Systems for EMC Practitioners. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wu, Y. (Ed.). (2011). Computing and Intelligent Systems: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011, Proceedings, Part III (Vol. 233). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Prashanth, L. A., Korda, N., & Munos, R. (2014). Fast LSTD Using Stochastic Approximation: Finite Time Analysis and Application to Traffic Control. In T. Calders, F. Esposito, E. Hüllermeier, & R. Meo (Eds.), Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML PKDD 2014, Nancy, France, September 15-19, 2014. Proceedings, Part II (pp. 66–81). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Information Management.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 12). Restoration Of Farmland Can Be Directed By Inoculating The Land With Different Soils. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Surface Transportation: Restructured Federal Approach Needed for More Focused, Performance-Based, and Sustainable Programs (No. GAO-08-400). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heredia, R. (2017). Leadership Development in a Multigenerational Workplace: An Exploratory Study (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L. (2009, January 21). Riding the Oil Market, Calgary Builds Up. New York Times, p. B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fuhrman, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Fuhrman, 2009; van den Heuvel & Dekker, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van den Heuvel & Dekker, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Jeong, Kim, & Lee, 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Information Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Inf. Manage.
ISSN (print)0268-4012
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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