How to format your references using the International Journal of Information Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Information Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H. (2014). Drug delivery: brain food. Nature, 510(7506), S6-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sigala, N., & Logothetis, N. K. (2002). Visual categorization shapes feature selectivity in the primate temporal cortex. Nature, 415(6869), 318–320.
A journal article with 3 authors
Angelakis, D. G., Das, P., & Noh, C. (2014). Probing the topological properties of the Jackiw-Rebbi model with light. Scientific Reports, 4, 6110.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Donnadieu, Y., Goddéris, Y., Ramstein, G., Nédélec, A., & Meert, J. (2004). A “snowball Earth” climate triggered by continental break-up through changes in runoff. Nature, 428(6980), 303–306.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLaughlin, T. A. (2010). Nonprofit Mergers and Alliances. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bengtsson, L., Herschy, R. W., & Fairbridge, R. W. (Eds.). (2012). Encyclopedia of Lakes and Reservoirs. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ruivo, P., Oliveira, T., & Neto, M. (2012). ERP Post-adoption: Use and Value – An Empirical Study on Portuguese SMEs. In H. Rahman, A. Mesquita, I. Ramos, & B. Pernici (Eds.), Knowledge and Technologies in Innovative Information Systems: 7th Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, MCIS 2012, Guimaraes, Portugal, September 8-10, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 67–81). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Information Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 10). Why This Researcher Hunted For Scientists With Chests Narrower Than 18 Centimeters. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Time Is Running Out for Federal Agencies to Prepare for the New Millennium (T-AIMD-97-129). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klyce, L. R. (2008). Assessing parent-child agreement on an eating disorder symptom questionnaire [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Apuzzo, M., Goldman, A., & Mazzetti, M. (2017, May 19). F.B.I. Warned G.O.P. Congressman Russian Spies Were Recruiting Him. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hoag, 2014; Sigala & Logothetis, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sigala & Logothetis, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Angelakis et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Donnadieu et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Information Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Inf. Manage.
ISSN (print)0268-4012
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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