How to format your references using the International Journal of Information Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Information Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adami, C. (2006). Computer science. What do robots dream of? Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5802), 1093–1094.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schulz, H. N., & Schulz, H. D. (2005). Large sulfur bacteria and the formation of phosphorite. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5708), 416–418.
A journal article with 3 authors
Basch, M. L., Bronner-Fraser, M., & García-Castro, M. I. (2006). Specification of the neural crest occurs during gastrulation and requires Pax7. Nature, 441(7090), 218–222.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Todesco, M., Balasubramanian, S., Hu, T. T., Traw, M. B., Horton, M., Epple, P., Kuhns, C., Sureshkumar, S., Schwartz, C., Lanz, C., Laitinen, R. A. E., Huang, Y., Chory, J., Lipka, V., Borevitz, J. O., Dangl, J. L., Bergelson, J., Nordborg, M., & Weigel, D. (2010). Natural allelic variation underlying a major fitness trade-off in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature, 465(7298), 632–636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stoican, F., & Olaru, S. (2013). Set-theoretic Fault-tolerant Control in Multisensor Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mason, J. E. (2016). Machine Learning Techniques for Gait Biometric Recognition: Using the Ground Reaction Force (I. Traoré & I. Woungang, Eds.; 1st ed. 2016). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, M.-Y., & Hu, C.-H. (2013). Using Latent Variable to Estimate Parameters of Inverse Gaussian Distribution Based on Time-Censored Wiener Degradation Data. In Y.-K. Lin, Y.-C. Tsao, & S.-W. Lin (Eds.), Proceedings of the Institute of Industrial Engineers Asian Conference 2013 (pp. 29–35). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Information Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, November 25). Small Brain Region Plays Big Role In Decision Making. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Energy Research and Development Administration’s Contingency Plan for Constructing Additional Enrichment Capacity at Portsmouth, Ohio (RED-76-55). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brothers, J. (2009). Nonparametric regression using wavelet transformations and noise reduction in audio signals [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, September 5). Bustling Booth Becomes Waypoint In Ashe’s Legacy. New York Times, SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adami, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Adami, 2006; Schulz & Schulz, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schulz & Schulz, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Basch et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Todesco et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Information Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Inf. Manage.
ISSN (print)0268-4012
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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