How to format your references using the International Journal of Information Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Information Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wen, L. (2006). Localized temporal change of the Earth’s inner core boundary. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5801), 967–970.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jensen, L. J., & Bork, P. (2008). Biochemistry. Not comparable, but complementary. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5898), 56–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gupta, R., He, Z., & Luan, S. (2002). Functional relationship of cytochrome c(6) and plastocyanin in Arabidopsis. Nature, 417(6888), 567–571.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
He, H., Wang, Y., Ma, Q., Ma, J., Chu, B., Ji, D., Tang, G., Liu, C., Zhang, H., & Hao, J. (2014). Mineral dust and NOx promote the conversion of SO2 to sulfate in heavy pollution days. Scientific Reports, 4, 4172.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Block, T., Eggert, H., & Kauschke, W. (2013). Lager im Bauwesen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Koenig, H. G. (2014). Health and Well-Being in Islamic Societies: Background, Research, and Applications (S. A. Shohaib, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Fusté-Vilella, D., Pulido, J.-M., García-Vidal, J., & Gheorghiu, S. (2007). TrafficNet: A L2 Network Architecture for Road-to-Vehicle Communication. In J. García-Vidal & L. Cerdà-Alabern (Eds.), Wireless Systems and Mobility in Next Generation Internet: Third International Workshop of the EURO-NGI Network of Excellence, Sitges, Spain, June 6-9, 2006, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 43–61). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Information Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 12). Scientists May Have Finally Detected A Dark Matter Signal. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Highway Trust Fund Expenditures on Purposes Other than Construction and Maintenance of Highways and Bridges during Fiscal Years 2004-2008 (GAO-09-729R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Britt, A. L. (2014). The Long-Term Impact of Preschool Education on Student Achievement [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2005, September 28). Supreme Court to Determine Fate of Business Tax Credits. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wen, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Jensen & Bork, 2008; Wen, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jensen & Bork, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Gupta et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (He et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Information Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Inf. Manage.
ISSN (print)0268-4012
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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