How to format your references using the International Journal of Information Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Information Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vogt, M. (2015). ECOLOGY. Adrift in an ocean of change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6267), 1466–1468.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xie, W., & Ren, B. (2013). Developmental biology. Enhancing pluripotency and lineage specification. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6143), 245–247.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fischle, W., Wang, Y., & Allis, C. D. (2003). Binary switches and modification cassettes in histone biology and beyond. Nature, 425(6957), 475–479.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Baugh, J., Moussa, O., Ryan, C. A., Nayak, A., & Laflamme, R. (2005). Experimental implementation of heat-bath algorithmic cooling using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Nature, 438(7067), 470–473.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stevenson, O. (2008). Neglected Children and Their Families. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Lee, R., & Ishii, N. (Eds.). (2009). Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (Vol. 209). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, Y.-C., & Lu, S.-J. (2009). An Investigation of Function Based Design Considering Affordances in Conceptual Design of Mechanical Movement. In D. Harris (Ed.), Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 8th International Conference, EPCE 2009, Held as Part of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009. Proceedings (pp. 43–51). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Information Management.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, January 30). This Woman Lived Without Lungs For Six Days. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Telecommunications: Issues Related to Local Telephone Service (RCED-00-237). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dunn, L. K. (2017). Hiring manager’s consideration process for ex-offender job applicants: A grounded theory study [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, June 29). Look & See: A Portrait of Wendell Berry. New York Times, C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vogt, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Vogt, 2015; Xie & Ren, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xie & Ren, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Fischle et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Baugh et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Information Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Inf. Manage.
ISSN (print)0268-4012
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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