How to format your references using the Operative Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Operative Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles S (2008) Being human: Conflict: Altruism’s midwife Nature 456(7220) 326–327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Uchida M, & Tonomura A (2010) Generation of electron beams carrying orbital angular momentum Nature 464(7289) 737–739.
A journal article with 3 authors
Capraro V, Jordan JJ, & Rand DG (2014) Heuristics guide the implementation of social preferences in one-shot Prisoner’s Dilemma experiments Sci Rep 4 6790.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Andersen JS, Wilkinson CJ, Mayor T, Mortensen P, Nigg EA, & Mann M (2003) Proteomic characterization of the human centrosome by protein correlation profiling Nature 426(6966) 570–574.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheller-Sheridan C (2011) Basic Guide to Dental Instruments John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Goodwin GC (2005) Constrained Control and Estimation: An Optimisation Approach Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Kurtenbach S, Mannheim T, Hüsing M, & Corves B (2014) Content and Realization of Education in Mechanism Theory at RWTH Aachen University In: García-Prada JC, & Castejón C (eds) New Trends in Educational Activity in the Field of Mechanism and Machine Theory Springer International Publishing, Cham 39–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Operative Dentistry.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Why Aren’t Io’s Volcanoes Where They Should Be? IFLScience. Retrieved online October 30, 2018 from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975) Federal Funding Provided to 10 Police Departments for Intelligence Activities U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor C (2011) The Crowd Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2014) Eusebio, Who Represented the Best of Soccer and of Portugal, Dies at 71 New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOperative Dentistry
AbbreviationOper. Dent.
ISSN (print)0361-7734
ISSN (online)1559-2863
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

Other styles