How to format your references using the Operative Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Operative Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Owens B (2015) Drug development: The treasure chest Nature 525(7570) S6-8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Killingsworth MA, & Gilbert DT (2010) A wandering mind is an unhappy mind Science 330(6006) 932.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ford EB, Seager S, & Turner EL (2001) Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability Nature 412(6850) 885–887.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee YJ, Yi H, Kim W-J, Kang K, Yun DS, Strano MS, Ceder G, & Belcher AM (2009) Fabricating genetically engineered high-power lithium-ion batteries using multiple virus genes Science 324(5930) 1051–1055.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jaitly R (2016) Practical Operational Due Diligence on Hedge Funds John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Mesquita M, Restivo S, & D’Ambrosio U (eds) (2011) Asphalt Children and City Streets: A Life, a City and a Case Study of History, Culture, and Ethnomathematics in São Paulo SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Song Y (2016) Function of Membrane-Associated Proteoglycans in the Regulation of Satellite Cell Growth In: White J, & Smythe G (eds) Growth Factors and Cytokines in Skeletal Muscle Development, Growth, Regeneration and Disease Springer International Publishing, Cham 61–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Operative Dentistry.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Spare Your Health, Budget, And The Planet: Ditch The Palaeodiet IFLScience. Retrieved online October 30, 2018 from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Computer Capacity: IRS Must Better Estimate Its Computer Resource Needs U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson C (2012) Directed blogging with community college ESL students: Its effects on awareness of language acquisition processes Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Traub J (2017) Think Locally, Act Locally New York Times BR19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOperative Dentistry
AbbreviationOper. Dent.
ISSN (print)0361-7734
ISSN (online)1559-2863
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

Other styles