How to format your references using the Operative Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Operative Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Appelbaum FR (2001) Haematopoietic cell transplantation as immunotherapy Nature 411(6835) 385–389.
A journal article with 2 authors
Casares F, & Mann RS (2001) The ground state of the ventral appendage in Drosophila Science 293(5534) 1477–1480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Imaizumi T, Kay SA, & Schroeder JI (2007) Circadian rhythms. Daily watch on metabolism Science 318(5857) 1730–1731.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Prasad GVR, Verma O, Sahni A, Parmar V, & Khosla A (2007) A Cretaceous hoofed mammal from India Science 318(5852) 937.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shynk JJ (2016) Mathematical Foundations for Linear Circuits and Systems in Engineering John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Karakoc TH, Ozerdem MB, Sogut MZ, Colpan CO, Altuntas O, & Açıkkalp E (eds) (2016) Sustainable Aviation: Energy and Environmental Issues Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanford JF, Potkonjak M, & Slijepcevic S (2012) Beacon Positioning and Operations In: Potkonjak M, & Slijepcevic S (eds) Localization in Wireless Networks: Foundations and Applications Springer, New York, NY 97–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Operative Dentistry.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Would You get Married in a Church Made From Living Trees? IFLScience. Retrieved online October 30, 2018 from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Default Rates on Federal Student Loans U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Charpentier DT (2017) Why Dey Talk Like Dat?: A Study of the Status of Cajun English as a Dialect or an Accent Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B (2017) Rangers Unearth Vigor in a Clinching Win New York Times SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOperative Dentistry
AbbreviationOper. Dent.
ISSN (print)0361-7734
ISSN (online)1559-2863
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

Other styles