How to format your references using the Operative Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Operative Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lake JA (2009) Evidence for an early prokaryotic endosymbiosis Nature 460(7258) 967–971.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burton DR, & Weiss RA (2010) AIDS/HIV. A boost for HIV vaccine design Science 329(5993) 770–773.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alby K, Schaefer D, & Bennett RJ (2009) Homothallic and heterothallic mating in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans Nature 460(7257) 890–893.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smirnakis SM, Brewer AA, Schmid MC, Tolias AS, Schüz A, Augath M, Inhoffen W, Wandell BA, & Logothetis NK (2005) Lack of long-term cortical reorganization after macaque retinal lesions Nature 435(7040) 300–307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heckman R (2016) Designing Platform Independent Mobile Apps and Services John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hutter K (2011) Physics of Lakes: Volume 2: Lakes as Oscillators Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sayaf R, Clarke D, & Harper R (2015) $$\mathrm{CPS}^2$$ : A Contextual Privacy Framework for Social Software In: Tian J, Jing J, & Srivatsa M (eds) International Conference on Security and Privacy in Communication Networks: 10th International ICST Conference, SecureComm 2014, Beijing, China, September 24-26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part II Springer International Publishing, Cham 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Operative Dentistry.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Hungry Snake Picked The Wrong Dinner IFLScience. Retrieved online October 30, 2018 from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1967) Automatic Data Processing U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevens W (2010) Using emotional intelligence as a leadership strategy to make good leaders great Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman MM (2012) Uncomfortable Accounting New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOperative Dentistry
AbbreviationOper. Dent.
ISSN (print)0361-7734
ISSN (online)1559-2863
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

Other styles