How to format your references using the American Journal of Clinical Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Clinical Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lodge DM. Faith and science can find common ground. Nature 2015;523:503.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hardie RC, Raghu P. Visual transduction in Drosophila. Nature 2001;413:186-193.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Steinman BA, Mann ME, Miller SK. Climate change. Atlantic and Pacific multidecadal oscillations and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Science 2015;347:988-991.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Yamachika R, Grobis M, Wachowiak A, et al. Controlled atomic doping of a single C60 molecule. Science 2004;304:281-284.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tiwari A, Gerhardt RA, Szutkowska M. Advanced Ceramic Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Buttazzo G. Soft Real-Time Systems: Predictability vs. Efficiency. (Lipari G, Abeni L, Caccamo M, eds.). Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Díaz I, Touriño J, Doallo R. Towards Low-Latency Model-Oriented Distributed Systems Management. In: Ata S, Hong CS, eds. Managing Next Generation Networks and Services: 10th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium, APNOMS 2007, Sapporo, Japan, October 10-12, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007:41-50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Clinical Pathology.

Blog post
1. Davis J. U.K. Doctors Propose A 20% Tax On Sugary Drinks. IFLScience 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School District Officials Face Problems in Dealing With Asbestos in Their Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Khayyat AM. Use of near field communication technology to prevent consumption and usage of expired products. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Venezuela Tops Italy in Marathon. New York Times. March 12, 2017:SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Clinical Pathology
AbbreviationAm. J. Clin. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0002-9173
ISSN (online)1943-7722
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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