How to format your references using the American Journal of Clinical Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Clinical Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Turner JA. Sustainable hydrogen production. Science 2004;305:972-974.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Choi J-K, Bowles S. The coevolution of parochial altruism and war. Science 2007;318:636-640.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. El-Ali J, Sorger PK, Jensen KF. Cells on chips. Nature 2006;442:403-411.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Zhang Y, Li S, Zhang J, et al. High-performance gas sensors with temperature measurement. Sci Rep 2013;3:1267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bécherrawy T. Mechanical and Electromagnetic Vibrations and Waves. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2012.
An edited book
1. Desai M, Jellis C, Yingchoncharoen T, eds. An Atlas of Mitral Valve Imaging. London: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stark F. Corporate Criminal Liability in Scotland: The Problems with a Piecemeal Approach. In: Pieth M, Ivory R, eds. Corporate Criminal Liability: Emergence, Convergence, and Risk. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011:113-146.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Clinical Pathology.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Time-Lapse Of Bird’s Nest Has An Unexpected Ending. IFLScience 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Needs Projections Could Better Reflect Future Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Grizzel RE. Three choral works by Dr. James Mobberley—the analysis rehearsal, and performance of “Poem to Ease Birth”, “Lullaby”, and “Spring: O Sparrow.” 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. McKINLEY JC Jr. New York City Scraps 644,000 Old Warrants for Minor Offenses. New York Times. August 10, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Clinical Pathology
AbbreviationAm. J. Clin. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0002-9173
ISSN (online)1943-7722
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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