How to format your references using the Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leisinger K (2015) Business needs to embrace sustainability targets. Nature 528(7581):165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Serebrov V, Pyle AM (2004) Periodic cycles of RNA unwinding and pausing by hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase. Nature 430(6998):476–480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saturno WA, Stuart D, Beltrán B (2006) Early Maya writing at San Bartolo, Guatemala. Science 311(5765):1281–1283.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Audet P, Bostock MG, Christensen NI, Peacock SM (2009) Seismic evidence for overpressured subducted oceanic crust and megathrust fault sealing. Nature 457(7225):76–78.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ng KK (2009) Complete Guide to Semiconductor Devices (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Hudak P, Warren DS eds. (2008) Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages: 10th International Symposium, PADL 2008, San Francisco, CA, USA, January 7-8, 2008. Proceedings (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg).
A chapter in an edited book
Kitamura S (2007) Tissue Engineering Research and Cell Regenerative Therapy for Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD); National Cardiovascular Center (Japan) Trials. Magjarevic R, Nagel JH, eds. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering 2006: August 27 – September 1, 2006 COEX Seoul, Korea “Imaging the Future Medicine.” IFMBE Proceedings. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg), 5–5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Operations Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Future Of Food: Growing More With The Same Land. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Business Modernization: NASA’s Integrated Financial Management Program Does Not Fully Address Agency’s External Reporting Issues (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson DG (2012) An application of geotechnical techniques to quantitative regional slope stability analysis San Clemente, California. Doctoral dissertation. (California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J (2017) Technologists Face Hurdles Before They Take Wheel. New York Times (June 7).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leisinger 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Leisinger 2015, Serebrov and Pyle 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Serebrov and Pyle 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Audet et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleOperations Research
AbbreviationOper. Res.
ISSN (print)0030-364X
ISSN (online)1526-5463
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Management Science and Operations Research

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