How to format your references using the Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donley EA (2013) Physics. A view on energy transfer between cold atoms. Science 342(6161):942–943.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang G, Cai W (2013) Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature. Sci. Rep. 3:2039.
A journal article with 3 authors
Djuranovic S, Nahvi A, Green R (2012) miRNA-mediated gene silencing by translational repression followed by mRNA deadenylation and decay. Science 336(6078):237–240.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wyart C, Del Bene F, Warp E, Scott EK, Trauner D, Baier H, Isacoff EY (2009) Optogenetic dissection of a behavioural module in the vertebrate spinal cord. Nature 461(7262):407–410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shunmugaperumal T (2010) Biofilm Eradication and Prevention (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Zeadally S, Cerqueira E, Curado M, Leszczuk M eds. (2010) Future Multimedia Networking: Third International Workshop, FMN 2010, Kraków, Poland, June 17-18, 2010. Proceedings (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg).
A chapter in an edited book
Kang SG, Choi SH (2013) Knowledge-Directed Opportunistic Search. Choi SH, ed. Multi-Agent Based Beam Search for Real-Time Production Scheduling and Control: Method, Software and Industrial Application. (Springer, London), 31–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Operations Research.

Blog post
Carpineti C (2017) Watch Vector Space’s Successful Launch Of Their First Small Satellite Rocket. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), https://www.iflscience.com/space/watch-vector-spaces-successful-launch-of-their-first-small-satellite-rocket/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Small Business Innovation Research: Information on Awards Made by NIH and DoD in Fiscal Years 2001 through 2004 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Geiselman CK (2010) Diet and reproduction of sympatric nectar-feeding bat species (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in French Guiana. Doctoral dissertation. (Columbia University, New York, NY).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J (2016) Starring in Someone Else’s Film. New York Times (August 19).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Donley 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Donley 2013, Wang and Cai 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Cai 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Wyart et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleOperations Research
AbbreviationOper. Res.
ISSN (print)0030-364X
ISSN (online)1526-5463
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Management Science and Operations Research

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