How to format your references using the Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carroll SM (2006) Is our Universe natural? Nature 440(7088):1132–1136.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiang YC, Gao J (2014) Strain-induced photoconductivity in thin films of Co doped amorphous carbon. Sci. Rep. 4:6738.
A journal article with 3 authors
van Loenhout MTJ, de Grunt MV, Dekker C (2012) Dynamics of DNA supercoils. Science 338(6103):94–97.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xiang Y, Laurent B, Hsu CH, Nachtergaele S, Lu Z, Sheng W, Xu C, et al. (2017) Corrigendum: RNA m6A methylation regulates the ultraviolet-induced DNA damage response. Nature 552(7685):430.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edwards J (2004) Telecosmos (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Ueno NT, Cristofanilli M eds. (2012) Inflammatory Breast Cancer: An Update (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht).
A chapter in an edited book
Milivojevic S (2016) Re-bordering the Peripheral Global North and Global South: Game of Drones, Immobilising Mobile Bodies and Decentring Perspectives on Drones in Border Policing. Završnik A, ed. Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems: Legal and Social Implications for Security and Surveillance. (Springer International Publishing, Cham), 83–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Operations Research.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) 18 “Healthy” Beverages That Surprisingly Contain A Ton Of Sugar. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Federal Transit Programs: Federal Transit Administration Has Opportunities to Improve Performance Accountability (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winton TW (2015) Student and Teacher Perceptions of Standards-based Grading and Student Performance. Doctoral dissertation. (Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte L (2011) Scouting Report. New York Times (May 5).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carroll 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Carroll 2006, Jiang and Gao 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jiang and Gao 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiang et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleOperations Research
AbbreviationOper. Res.
ISSN (print)0030-364X
ISSN (online)1526-5463
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Management Science and Operations Research

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