How to format your references using the Genetics in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genetics in Medicine (GIM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burns JA. Solar system science. Two bodies are better than one. Science. 2002;297(5583):942-943.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spaldin NA, Fiebig M. Materials science. The renaissance of magnetoelectric multiferroics. Science. 2005;309(5733):391-392.
A journal article with 3 authors
Philips JA, Rubin EJ, Perrimon N. Drosophila RNAi screen reveals CD36 family member required for mycobacterial infection. Science. 2005;309(5738):1251-1253.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Czub E, Nowak JK, Moczko J, et al. Comparison of fecal pyruvate kinase isoform M2 and calprotectin in acute diarrhea in hospitalized children. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4769.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous A. Fracture Mechanics 2. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Baleanu D, Guvenc ZB, Machado JAT, eds. New Trends in Nanotechnology and Fractional Calculus Applications. Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Norrie MC. Desktop, Tabletop or Mobile? In: Ceri S, Brambilla M, eds. Search Computing: Trends and Developments. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2011:46-52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genetics in Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Manhattan Insects Eat Tons of Garbage off the Streets Every Year. IFLScience. Published December 3, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Teenage Prostitution and Child Pornography. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perelygin K. Developing physics simulations with OpenCL on a graphics processing unit. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L. A Model Walks Into a Bar …. New York Times. October 11, 2015:ST21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGenetics in Medicine
ISSN (print)1098-3600
ISSN (online)1530-0366

Other styles