How to format your references using the Genetics in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genetics in Medicine (GIM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patek SN. Spiny lobsters stick and slip to make sound. Nature. 2001;411(6834):153-154.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen JD, Tong F. Neuroscience. The face of controversy. Science. 2001;293(5539):2405-2407.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pocock MJO, Evans DM, Memmott J. The robustness and restoration of a network of ecological networks. Science. 2012;335(6071):973-977.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen LY, Parizi KB, Kosuge H, et al. Mass fabrication and delivery of 3D multilayer μTags into living cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yu SF. Analysis and Design of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Craciun A, Schaffer S, eds. The Material Cultures of Enlightenment Arts and Sciences. Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Campioni I, Notarangelo G, Andreaus U, Ventura A, Giacomozzi C. Hip Prostheses Computational Modeling: FEM Simulations Integrated with Fatigue Mechanical Tests. In: Andreaus U, Iacoviello D, eds. Biomedical Imaging and Computational Modeling in Biomechanics. Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics. Springer Netherlands; 2013:81-108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genetics in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Is It OK To Have A Beer After Exercise? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund Expenditures on Purposes Other than Construction and Maintenance of Highways and Bridges during Fiscal Years 2004-2008. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen M. Therapeutic Groups for Adults with Mental Illness and Their Caregivers: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L. A Love of Adventure Leads to Love Near Home. New York Times. June 2, 2017:ST11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGenetics in Medicine
ISSN (print)1098-3600
ISSN (online)1530-0366

Other styles