How to format your references using the Genetics in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genetics in Medicine (GIM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmitz OJ. Effects of predator hunting mode on grassland ecosystem function. Science. 2008;319(5865):952-954.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tanaka A, Sakaguchi S. Immunology. Early life Aire. Science. 2015;348(6234):506-507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conrad CP, Steinberger B, Torsvik TH. Stability of active mantle upwelling revealed by net characteristics of plate tectonics. Nature. 2013;498(7455):479-482.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dantas G, Sommer MOA, Oluwasegun RD, Church GM. Bacteria subsisting on antibiotics. Science. 2008;320(5872):100-103.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bintliff J. The Complete Archaeology of Greece. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Kim HK, Ao SI, Amouzegar MA, eds. Transactions on Engineering Technologies: Special Issue of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2013. Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Kubíčková V. Application of Survival Analysis on Analysing the Association Between Chromosomal Aberrations and Carcinoma. In: Bris R, Majernik J, Pancerz K, Zaitseva E, eds. Applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technology. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer International Publishing; 2016:93-102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genetics in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Solar Impulse Completes Record-Breaking Flight to Hawaii. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education Finance: Extent of Federal Funding in State Education Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer MD. Organizational Improvisation within an Episodic Planning Model: A Systems Perspective. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Capturing the Fury of Womanhood. New York Times. April 20, 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGenetics in Medicine
ISSN (print)1098-3600
ISSN (online)1530-0366

Other styles